Issues: Health

Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby
Chemical Pollution and Mother's Milk

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Chemicals in Mother's Milk
The Cycle of Hazardous Chemicals
Problems with Infant Formula
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What Mothers Should Do
What Governments Should Do
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Notes on "The Problems with Infant Formula"

Contamination of water supplies by parasites. Olson, E. "You Are What You Drink," 1995, Natural Resources Defense Council: New York.

Bottled water may also contain contaminants. Olson, E. "Bottled Water: Pure Drink or Pure Hype?" 1999, Natural Resources Defense Council: New York.

Recalls ordered. Baumslag, N. and D.L. Michels. "Milk, Money, and Madness: The Culture and Politics of Breastfeeding," 1995, Bergin & Garvey: Westport, CT. p. Appendix C.

Aflatoxin known to cause cancer. Aksit, S., et al. "Aflatoxin: Is it a Neglected Threat for Formula-fed Infants?" Acta Paediatrica Japan 1997; 39(1): p. 34-36.

Formulas also may contain excessive levels of metals. Fernandez-Lorenzo, J.R., et al. "Aluminum Contents of Human Milk, Cow's Milk, and Infant Formulas," Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1999; 28(3): p. 270-275. Also, Eklund, G. and A. Oskarsson. "Exposure of Cadmium from Infant Formulas and Weaning Foods," Food Additives and Contaminants 1999; 16(12): p. 509-519.

Feminizing effect on the infants. Setchell, K.D., L. Zimmer-Nechemias, and C.J. Heubi. "Exposure of Infants to Phyto-oestrogens from Soy-based Infant Formula," Lancet 1997; 350(9070): p. 23-27.

Notes on "The Benefits of Breastfeeding"

The first six months of life. Davies, M. "Infant Feeding and Childhood Lymphomas," Lancet, 1988; 2: p. 365-368.

The longer the mother breastfeeds. Palti, H., et al. "Episodes of Illness in Breast Fed & Bottle Fed Infants in Jerusalem," Israeli Journal of Medical Science, 1984; 20(5): p. 395-399.

Both are ready to stop. Duffy, L. "The Effects of Infant Feeding on Rotavirus-induced Gastroenteritis: A Prospective Study," American Journal of Public Helath 1986; 76: p. 259-263.

Mother passes antibodies to the child. Hahn-Zoric, M., et al. "Antibody Responses to Parental and Oral Vaccines are Impaired by Conventional and Low-protein Formulas as Compared to Breast Feeding," Acta Pediatrica Scandinavica 1990; 79(12): p. 1137-1142. Also, Chang, S. "Antimicrobial Proteins of Maternal and Cord Rera and Human Milk in Relation to Maternal Nutritional Status," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990; 51(2): p. 183-187.

Diarrheal disease three to four times more likely. Duffy, op. cit. Also, "Lerman, Y. Epidemiology of Acute Diarrheal Diseases in Children in a High Standard of Living in a Rural Settlement in Israel," Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1994; 12(2): p. 116-122.

Twice as likely to develop bronchitis. Duran, C.D. "Cytologic Diagnosis of Milk Micro Aspiration," Immunology and Allergy Practice 1991; 8(10): p. 402-405.

Children of smoking mothers. Woodwar, A. Acute Respiratory Illness in Adelaide Children: Breast Feeding Modifies the Effect of Passive Smoking," Journal of Epidemiology in Community Health 1990; 44: p. 224-230.

Common colds, diarrhea, and vomiting. Merrett, T., et al. "Infant Feeding & Allergy: Twelve-month Prospective Study of 500 Babies Born in Allergic Families," Annals Allergy 1988; 61(6): p. 13-20.

Ear and respiratory infections. Duncan, B., et al. "Exclusive Breastfeeding for at least Four Months Protects Against Otitis Media," Pediatrics 1993; 91: p. 867-872.

Formula-fed baby in Brazil. Smith, M. "Nursing the World Back to Health," New Beginnings 1995; 12(3): p. 68-71.

Decrease in probability of SIDS. Mitchell, E.A., et al. "Results from the First Year of the New Zealand Cot Death Study," New Zealand Medical Journal 1991; 104(906): p. 71-76.

Eczema rarer. Chandra, R., Puri, S., and Hamed, A. "Influence of Maternal Diet During Lactation and Use of Formula Feeds on Development of Atopic Eczema in High Risk Infants," British Medical Journal 1989; 299(6693): p. 228-230.

Fewer cavities. Labbok, M. and G. Hendershot. "Does Breast Feeding Protect Against Malocclusion? An Analysis of the 1981 Child Health Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey," American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1987; 3(4): p. 227-232.

Diabetes. Verge, C., et al. "Environmental Factors in Childhood IDDM: A Population Based, Case Control Study," Diabetes Care 1994; 17(12): p. 1381-1389.

Decreases the risk of childhood cancer. Davies, op. cit.

Heart disease less likely. Coburn, J. "Formula for Profit: How Marketing Breastmilk Subsitutes Undermines the Health of Babies," Mothering 2000; July/August: p. 58-68.

Inflammatory bowel disease. Koletzko, S. "Role of Infant Feeding Practices in Development of Crohn's Disease in Childhood," British Medical Journal 1989; 298: p. 1617-1618. Also, Whorwell, P.J., et al. "Bottle Feeding, Early Gastroenteritis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease," British Medical Journal 1979; 1(6160): p. 382.

Multiple sclerosis. Dick, G. "The Etiology of Multiple Sclerosis," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1976; 69: p. 611-615.

Cognitive development. Morley, R. "Mother's Choice to Provide Breast Milk and Developmental Outcome," 63 1988; (1382-1385).

More socially advanced at 12 months. Baumgartner, C. "Psychomotor and Social Development of Breast Fed and Bottle Fed Babies During their First Year of Life," Acta Paediatrica Hungarica 1984; 25(4): p. 409-417.

More mature, assertive and secure. Newton, N. "Psychological Differences Between Breast and Bottle Feeding," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1971; 24: p. 993-1004.

Lose weight. Kramer, F.M., et al. "Breast Feeding Reduces Maternal Lower Body Fat," Journal of the American Diet Association 1993; 93(4): p. 429-433.

Energy source for lactation. International, La Leache League, Benefits of Breast Feeding to the Mother," in A Mother's Love, 2000.

Protects from becoming pregnant again too soon. Thapa, S. "Breastfeeding, Birth Spacing and their Effects on Child Survival," Nature 1988; 335: p. 679-682.

Prevents more births. Adkins-Blanch, S., "Breastfeeding Patterns in the Developing World with Selected Maternal & Child Health Indicators," Measure Communication, 1999, Population Reference Bureau.

6.5 births per woman. Smith, op. cit.

Reduces risk of osteoperosis. Blaauw, R. "Risk Factors for Development of Osteoporosis in a South African Population," South African Medical Journal 1994; 84: p. 328-332.

Mineral density is replenished. Kalkwarf, H.J. and S.B.L. "Bone Mineral Loss During Lactation and Recovery After Weaning," Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995; 86: p. 26-32.

Insulin required goes down. Davies, H., et al. "Insulin Requirements of Diabetic Women Who Breast Feed," British Medical Journal 1989; 298(6684): p. 1357-1358.

Reduce chances of developing breast cancer by 24 percent. Newcomb, P. "Lactation and Reduced Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer," New England Journal of Medicine 1994; 330(2): p. 81-87.

Uterine cancer. Brock, K., et al. "Sexual, Reproductive, and Contraceptive Risk Factors for Carcinoma-in-Situ of the Uterine Cervix in Sidney," Medical Journal of Australia 1989; 150(3): p. 125-130.

Ovarian cancer. Rosenblatt, K.A. and D.B. Thomas. "Lactation and the Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer," International Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 22: p. 192-197.

Endometrial cancer. Peterson, B. "Menstruation Span -- a Time Limited Risk Factor for Endometrial Carcinoma," Acta Obstetrica Gynecological Scandinavica 1986; 65: p. 247-255.

Fewer feelings of anxiety, connection. Virden, S. "The Relationship Between Infant Feeding Method and Maternal Role Adjustment," Journal of Nurse Midwifery 1988; 33(1): p. 31-35.

Sense of confidence. Lawrence, R.A., "A Review of the Medical Benefits and Contraindications to Breastfeeding in the United States," 1997, National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health: Arlington, VA.

$68,000 and $4,000. Smith, M. op. cit.

Notes on "What Mothers Should Do"

Rates of breastfeeding in African-American community. Philipp, B.L., A. Merewood, and S. O'Brien. "Physicians and Breastfeeding Promotion in the United States: A Call for Action," Pediatrics 2001; (584-588).

Notes on "What Governments Should Do"

Most chemicals have never been tested for potential health effects. Pease, W. "Toxic Ignorance," 1999, Environmental Defense Fund: New York.

Additional Notes

Notes for the chemical pages are included in each individual page.

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last revised 5.22.01

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