Environmental Issues > Sustainable Communities Main Page > All Sustainable Communities Documents

Top of Report


Appendix D
Description of Systems

Following are descriptions of, and pertinent data for, the wastewater collection systems on which the regression analyses contained in this study are based. The most recent population data, either for 1994 or 1996 are used for each community. The most recent jobs data are available for 1992.

Avon, Ohio

Population, 1970 Population, 1994/96 Jobs, 1972 Jobs, 1992 # Service Units, 1992/94/96 Miles of Pipe, 1996 Service Units/Mi of Pipe Land Area, Sq. Mi. Pipe Miles /Sq Mi Conveyance Outlays, 1996 (Mil $)
7,214 8,197 367 1,553 9,750 35.0 278.57 20.5 1.7 0.185


Avon is located in eastern Lorrain County and borders Cuyahoga County. This part of Lorrain County has begun to experience significant development in the last few years. Between 1970 and 1990, Avon's population increased only slightly from 7,214 persons to 7,337. By 1994, however, population had increased to 8,197 persons, an increase of almost 12% in just four years. Avon's incorporated area encompasses 20.5 miles, much of which is undeveloped or lightly developed.

Avon is a predominantly low density residential community characterized by single-family homes and small neighborhood commercial centers. Located 22 miles from downtown Cleveland, it is within easy access of the region's two main east-west highways, and is located in close proximity to the rapidly growing Westlake to the east. Avon is a rural/agricultural community and, until now, has basically maintained its semi-rural, exurban character. Beginning in the early 1990's Avon began to experience major new residential development and this is expected to continue. In anticipation of expected growth, the City recently upgraded and expanded the capacity of its sanitary sewer system creating additional capacity for future development.

Avon's total wastewater collection system outlays in 1996 were $372,793, of which $188,000 was for a newly instituted I/I (inflow and infiltration) charge assessed for transmitting flows to the regional wastewater treatment plant. The I/I charge is omitted from this analysis since it is related to the interconnection with the wastewater treatment facility owned and operated by another entity, and is located some distance away.

Bay Village, Ohio

Population, 1970 Population, 1994/96 Jobs, 1972 Jobs, 1992 # Service Units, 1992/94/96 Miles of Pipe, 1996 Service Units/Mi of Pipe Land Area, Sq. Mi. Pipe Miles /Sq Mi Conveyance Outlays, 1996 (Mil $)
18,163 16,755 583 992 17,747 60.0 295.78 4.5 13.3 $0.308


Bay Village is a lake-side community consisting largely of single family residential homes with some limited commercial development. As one of the "joint venture" communities, it has a wastewater collection system and participates as a partner in a regional wastewater treatment facility which is managed by the City of Rocky River. Bay Village is an older "inner" Cuyahoga County suburb. Its population peaked in 1970 at 18,163 persons, and has declined modestly to 16,755 in 1994. This is typical of many "graying" suburbs in the Cleveland area, and throughout the U.S.

The city's street pattern consists largely of a medium to large-lot residential grid. Total land area for Bay Village is 4.5 miles, most of which is fully developed at its current zoning.

Not including costs related to pumping stations necessary to transmit wastewater to the regional facility, total sewer collection outlays amounted to $1.016 million in 1996, which included substantial one-time capital outlays and related costs. After adjusting for these one-time costs, conveyance O&M costs for the local collection system amounted to $.308 million in 1996.

Fairview Park, Ohio

Population, 1970 Population, 1994/96 Jobs, 1972 Jobs, 1992 # Service Units, 1992/94/96 Miles of Pipe, 1996 Service Units/Mi of Pipe Land Area, Sq. Mi. Pipe Miles /Sq Mi Conveyance Outlays, 1996 (Mil $)
21,699 17,526 2,893 5,697 23,223 53.8 431.65 4.5 12.0 $0.217


Fairview Park is an older inner Cleveland-area suburb. Characteristic of a "graying" suburb, its population peaked in 1970 at 21,699, and has declined since then to 17,526 persons in 1994. Despite its declining population, the city experienced a significant increase in employment in the last twenty years. Between 1972 and 1992, the number of jobs increased from 2,893 to 5,697. Fairview Park encompasses an area of 4.5 square miles which is largely built out at its current zoning.

Fairview Park is one of the Joint Venture communities. The city collects wastewater from within its boundaries and transmits it to two regional wastewater treatment plants - the Joint Venture facility in Rocky River and the plant operated by the City of North Olmstead. Fairview Park operates two wastewater pumping stations which serve the older Park View neighborhood. In 1996, the City's total wastewater collection outlays amounted $217,206.53


Lakewood, Ohio

Population, 1970 Population, 1994/96 Jobs, 1972 Jobs, 1992 # Service Units, 1992/94/96 Miles of Pipe, 1996 Service Units/Mi of Pipe Land Area, Sq. Mi. Pipe Miles /Sq Mi Conveyance Outlays, 1996 (Mil $)
70,173 57,063 6,232 9,149 66,212 109.0 607.45 5.6 19.5 $0.840


Lakewood is an older inner suburb located on the shores of Lake Erie and immediately to the west of the city of Cleveland. It's population of 70,173 persons in 1970 declined to 59,718 in 1990, and is estimated to be 57,063 persons in 1994. Part of the decline in population has been offset by an increase in employment, which increased from 6,282 in 1972 to 9,149 in 1992. Total land area for Lakewood is 5.6 square miles, which is fully developed at its current zoning.

Despite its loss in population, Lakewood remains one of the most densely populated communities between New York and Chicago. Largely built-out by the mid part of this century, Lakewood's developed largely in a classic urban grid pattern. As part of the Cleveland area's "Gold Coast", it has a number of large and mid-sized condominium and apartment buildings bordering the Lake. A few blocks south and continuing for about a mile and a half are found the City's other residential and major commercial centers which continue the city's grid pattern. The southern neighborhoods are typified by single family and duplex units and some smaller multi-family units. Neighborhood commercial centers are within easy access of most residential areas.

Substantial resources are now being expended to repair and replace portions of Lakewood's wastewater conveyance system. Reportedly, some portions of the system are still quite old, and repair and replacement policies in the last few decades were not as aggressive as they are now.

Lakewood follows industry-recommended practices by separately accounting for its wastewater collection and treatment costs. Total collection costs in 1996 were $1.208 million. However, this amount includes indirect costs not included in reported data from other systems, and some extraordinary one-time contractual costs. [54] After adjustments, comparable collection O&M costs are $840,206.


North Olmstead, Ohio

Population, 1970 Population, 1994/96 Jobs, 1972 Jobs, 1992 # Service Units, 1992/94/96 Miles of Pipe, 1996 Service Units/Mi of Pipe Land Area, Sq. Mi. Pipe Miles /Sq Mi Conveyance Outlays, 1996 (Mil $)
34,861 34,577 2,641 10,324 44,901 175.4 255.99 11.6 15.1 $0.552


North Olmstead is the westernmost Cuyahoga County suburb. Its population grew rapidly between 1960 and 1970. In 1980 it reached 36,486, and declined modestly between then and 1994 to 34,577. The decline in population was more than offset by an increase in jobs which rose from 6,832 in 1982 to 10,324 in 1992, making it the second-largest employment center in western Cuyahoga County after Westlake. Much of the increase in jobs was attributable to growth in the retail and service industries. The City encompasses 11.6 square miles within its boundaries, with some areas still available for development.

North Olmstead also operates its own wastewater treatment facility which treats the City's flows as well as a portion of flows from Fairview Park. In 1996, the City's total wastewater collection costs were $551,564.


Rocky River, Ohio

Population, 1970 Population, 1994/96 Jobs, 1972 Jobs, 1992 # Service Units, 1992/94/96 Miles of Pipe, 1996 Service Units/Mi of Pipe Land Area, Sq. Mi. Pipe Miles /Sq Mi Conveyance Outlays, 1996 (Mil $)
22,958 20,410 4,091 7,870 28,280 90.0 314.22 4.5 20.0 $0.391


Rocky River is an older inner Cleveland suburb. Its population peaked in 1970 at 22,958, and has declined to about 20,410. Rocky River is immediately to the east of Lakewood, and borders Lake Erie. Despite the decline in population, the City experienced substantial job growth between 1982 and 1992 when jobs increased from 4,319 to 7,870. The city's land area encompasses 4.5 square miles and is substantially built out at its current zoning.

Rocky River is the operating partner of the Joint Venture wastewater treatment facility which receives flows from Rocky River, Bay Village, Westlake and Fairview Park. This venture is accounted and budgeted for separately from the city's wastewater collection system. In 1996 the City's collection costs amounted to $390,765.


Westlake, Ohio

Population, 1970 Population, 1994/96 Jobs, 1972 Jobs, 1992 # Service Units, 1992/94/96 Miles of Pipe, 1996 Service Units/Mi of Pipe Land Area, Sq. Mi. Pipe Miles /Sq Mi Conveyance Outlays, 1996 (Mil $)
15,689 31,889 2,355 12,227 44,116 114.0 386.98 16.5 6.9 $0.293


Westlake is one of the Joint Venture communities. It collects wastewater from within its municipal boundaries and transmits it to the joint venture treatment plant in the City of Rocky River. Westlake is one of the most rapidly growing communities in the Cleveland metropolitan region. Its population increased from 15,689 to 31,899 between 1970 and 1994. More than two-thirds of this growth has occurred since 1980, and between 1990 and 1994 the City's population increased by almost 20% for an annualized growth rate of about 4.5%. The City encompasses 16.5 square miles with substantial acreage available for additional development.

The rate of job growth has been even greater than population growth. Between 1972 and 1992 jobs increased from 2,355 to 12,227. Much of the job growth is attributable to office development and a regional mall. Most of Westlake's residential development is characterized by single family detached homes on medium size lots. In 1996, the City expended $293,417 on operating and maintaining its wastewater collection system.


Naperville, Illinois

Population, 1970 Population, 1994/96 Jobs, 1972 Jobs, 1992 # Service Units, 1992/94/96 Miles of Pipe, 1996 Service Units/Mi of Pipe Land Area, Sq. Mi. Pipe Miles /Sq Mi Conveyance Outlays, 1996 (Mil $)
13,023 109,100 6,543 39,475 148,575 301.0 493.60 34.0 8.9 $0.916


The City of Naperville has been one of the fastest growing communities in the U.S. in recent times. Between 1970 and 1980 its population more than quintupled from 13,023 to 70,000. By 1994 the population stood at 109,100. [55] Between 1990 and 1994, the average annual population growth rate was about 6.0 percent, and these extremely high rates of growth have continued since then. To accommodate much of this population influx, the City first built out its then current land area, and subsequently annexed large areas of previously undeveloped agricultural land. In 1980, the City's land area encompassed 20.5 square miles. This increased to 25.5 square miles in 1980, and to 30 square miles by 1990. By 1996, it had increased again to 34 square miles.

There has also been a rapid increase in the number of jobs in Naperville. Between 1972 and 1982, the number of jobs almost tripled from 6,543 to 19,000. And between 1982 and 1992 the number of jobs more than doubled to 39,475.

Naperville's 1996 wastewater costs were $915,738. Because the wastewater system experienced significant expansion during this budget year, this amount was adjusted upward by 5 percent to reflect the full additional O&M costs related to these new improvements. [56]

Naperville operates its own wastewater treatment plant. The plant also receives flows from the nearby town of Warrenville. Naperville separately reports its treatment and conveyance costs for its wastewater system.


Oak Park, Illinois

Population, 1970 Population, 1994/96 Jobs, 1972 Jobs, 1992 # Service Units, 1992/94/96 Miles of Pipe, 1996 Service Units/Mi of Pipe Land Area, Sq. Mi. Pipe Miles /Sq Mi Conveyance Outlays, 1996 (Mil $)
62,511 54,835 8,113 14,696 69,531 110.0 632.10 4.8 23.1 $0.574


The City of Oak Park is an older inner suburb, located to the West and immediately adjacent to the City of Chicago. Settled in the late 1880's, the City experienced its greatest growth between 1900 and 1940 when its population increased from 9,353 to 66,015. For the next three decades the population remained relatively stable and in 1970 the City had 62,511 persons. By 1990, however, population had declined to 54,835. Despite its decline in population, the number of jobs during this time increased substantially from 8,113 in 1970 to 14,696 in 1992.

During its developing years, the City became home to number of affluent and upper-middle class families. Oak Park is a showcase of the Prairie and Progressive architectural styles, featuring a number of historic and architecturally significant residences and other buildings designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and notable architects. The City has maintained its affluence over the years and has attracted substantial reinvestment in its housing and commercial building stock.

The City is primarily residential in character with a largely classic urban grid pattern. Residences consist mainly of single-family homes and some apartments. The City is served by a number of commercial establishments, and has substantial employment in area hospitals and medical service providers.

Conveyance outlays in 1995 were $557,573. This amount is adjusted upward by 3% to $574,300 to make it comparable to 1996 data used for other communities.


Back to contents page | Next page



Notes

53. Not including payments of $482,920 and $323,655 respectively to Rocky River and North Olmstead for treatment services.

54. Adjustments made are: $102,110 for indirect costs, $75,000 for internal services, $131,161 for other contractual services, and $59,773 for extraordinary motor vehicle and truck repairs.

55. The 1994 population estimate prepared by the City of Naperville is used as it is considered more reliable given the rapid growth rates.

56. During 1995, the City annexed 500 acres of land which required several wastewater line extensions. Between 1995 and 1996, the City added 43 miles of sanitary sewers to its collection system, which increased the system's total miles of pipe by about 14 percent. Since many of these new sewers were not fully on line, their O&M costs were not fully reflected in the 1996 budget data.

Sign up for NRDC's online newsletter

See the latest issue >

Kaid Benfield's Blog

Kaid Benfield writes about development, community and the environment on Switchboard.


Kaid's Recent Posts

City growth outpaces that of suburbs: new data
posted by Kaid Benfield, 4/16/14
The coolest urban trail you are likely to see
posted by Kaid Benfield, 4/10/14
LA's Little Tokyo strengthens its identity by planning a "cultural eco-district" (written with Thomas Yee)
posted by Kaid Benfield, 4/3/14

NRDC Gets Top Ratings from the Charity Watchdogs

Charity Navigator awards NRDC its 4-star top rating.
Worth magazine named NRDC one of America's 100 best charities.
NRDC meets the highest standards of the Wise Giving Alliance of the Better Business Bureau.


Donate now >

Share | |