Environmental Issues: Health

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Table 2. Alternative Pest Management Methods Used and Extent of Pesticides Reduced

Farmer Location Crop(s) Principle Pest Problems Alternative Pest Management Strategies Reductions in Synthetic Insecticide Use Reductions in Synthetic Herbicide Use Reductions in Synthetic Fungicide Use
Philip and Dorathy Barker Oxford, NC fresh market tomatoes, mixed vegetables, tobacc tomato fruitworm, early and late blight, weeds hot pepper sprays, Bt, cover crop during fallow period, crop diversity and rotations, black plastic mulch, drip tube irrigation 100% in tomatoes and mixed vegetables 0 0
Floyd Dahlman Forsythe, MT wheat, peas, livestock weeds legume, wheat, and cereal rotation NA 66% NA
Jerry Dobbins Woodland, WA raspberries orange tortrix, oblique-banded leaf roller, mites, root rot scouting, monitoring, beneficial insect releases Costs for insecticide use reduced 30-40% 0 Costs for fungicide use reduced 30-40%
Jim and Deborah Durst Esparto, CA organic fresh market and processing tomatoes, mixed vegetables tomato fruitworm, weeds, root rot, vascular wilts, powdery mildew crop diversity and rotations, cover crops, scouting, early season planting, Bt, insecticidal soaps, pyrethrum, mechanical cultivations, hand hoeing, flame weeder, resistant cultivars 100% 100% 100%
Chris Edmonds Sodus Bay, NY apples plum curculio, red mites, oblique- banded leaf roller, scab scouting, monitoring, predatory mites, petroleum oil, mowing, cover crops 55% 80% 50%
Doyle Fleming Orando, WA apples codling moth dwarf tree plantings, tower sprayer, scouting, monitoring, pheromones, Ryania, Bt, petroleum oil 60%1 0 0
Bunny and Peter Flint Tunbridge, VT dairy cows weeds, flies intensive rotational grazing, chickens for fly control 100% 100% NA
Wayne Fussel Ambrose, GA cotton, peanuts bollworm, budworm, beet armyworm, lesser corn stalk borer, leaf spot, white mold, weeds cover crops, monitoring, scouting, Bt, minimum tillage 80% in cotton
100% in peanuts
76% in cotton and peanuts 58% in peanuts
Dennis Holbrook Mission, TX organic grapefruit rust mites, armored scale, mealy bugs, leaf cutter ants, greasy spot, weeds controlled growth of native vegetation, scouting, monitoring, sulfur, pyrethrum, diatomaceous earth 100% 100% NA
Willard Jack Belzoni, MS rice, soybeans, cotton, corn weeds, rice water weevil, sheath blight precision grading of fields, winter flooding, minimum tillage, scouting, crop rotations NA 66% in rice and soybeans NA
Jackie Judice Franklin, LA sugarcane, soybeans, winter wheat weeds, sugarcane stalk borer, wire worms soil analysis, soil amendments, crop rotations 75% in sugarcane 56-79% in sugarcane NA
John Ledbetter Lodi, CA wine grapes variegated leaf- hopper, grape leaf- hopper, spider mites, powdery mildew, botrytis bunch rot cover crops, prune trees, yellow sticky tape, low-volume shrouded sprayer, careful trellising, pruning, and leaf pulling 52-67% 52% 10%
D.C. McClure Palmetto, FL fresh market tomatoes sweet potato white- flies, pinworm, southern armyworm, late blight, bacterial spot, weeds scouting, monitoring, Bt 56-81% 0 50%
Craig McNamara Winters, CA walnuts weeds, codling moth, walnut blight cover crops, flame weeder, monitoring, scouting, pheromones 100% on organic acreage acreage, 33% on remainder NA
Paul Mugge Sutherland, IA corn, soybeans, hogs weeds, northern corn rootworm ridge-tillage, crop rotations, scouting NA 46% in corn, 25% in soybeans NA
Francis Otto Suttons Bay, MI tart cherries plum curculio, cherry fruit flies, cherry leaf spot, brown rot, weeds monitoring, scouting, alternate row spraying, border sprays, tower sprayer 60-70% 0 40-66%
Tyler and Cindy Perkins Bernie, MO cotton, soybeans, sorghum weeds, thrips, cutworms, boll- worms, root knot nematodes ridge-tillage, monitoring 33% in cotton 21% in cotton NA
Clark Reeder Parrish, FL processing oranges citrus red mite, spider mites, white- flies, greasy spot, post-bloom fruit drop, scab scouting, monitoring, petroleum oil 79%2 0 See note 2
Tim and Jelaine Scannell Eden, WI dairy cows weeds intensive rotational grazing NA 100% NA
Mike and Darra Strohm West Union, IL corn, soybeans, wheat, sunflowers weeds, cutworm minimum tillage, crop rotations, cover crops, scouting NA 25% NA
John Wallendal Grand Marsh, WI potatoes Colorado potato beetle, potato leaf- hoppers, aphids, early and late season blights resistant seeds, monitoring, scouting, crop rotation, computer-controlled irrigation, WISDOM computer program 75% 0 33%
Jimmy and Susan Wedel Muleshoe, TX cotton, corn weeds, cotton bollworm, thrips irrigation manage- ment, mechanical cultivations, scouting, Bt 100% on organic acreage, 46% on remaining cotton acreage 100% on organic acreage NA

NA  (Not Applicable) = This type of pesticide has not been and is not used.
1   This reduction applies to codling moth insecticide use only.
2   This figures includes a reduction in fungicide use since some compounds are applied to control both insects and diseases.

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