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Trouble on the Farm
Growing Up with Pesticides in Agricultural Communities

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  5. Mott L. Our Children at Risk: The Five Greatest Threats to Children's Health. New York, NY: Natural Resources Defense Council, 1997.

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  11. Bradman M, Harnly M, Draper W, Seidel S, al. e. Pesticide exposures to children from California's Central Valley: results of a pilot study. J Expos Anal Environ Epi 1997; 7:217-234.

  12. Loewenherz C, Fenske RA, Simcox NJ, Bellamy G, Kalman D. Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in Central Washington State. Environ Hlth Persp 1997; 105:13441353.

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  16. Liebman J. Rising Toxic Tide. San Francisco: Pesticide Action Network of North America, 1997.

  17. Curtis J. Fields of Change: A New Crop of American Farmers Finds Alternatives to Pesticides. New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, 1998.

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  22. O'Malley M. Skin reactions to pesticides. Occ Med: State of the Art Reviews 1997; 12:327-345.

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  27. Gorell JM, Johnson CC, Rybicki BA, Peterson EL, Richardson RJ. The risk of Parkinson's disease with exposure to pesticides, farming, well water, and rural living. Neurology 1998; 50:1346-50.

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  31. Balduini W, Cimino M, Reno F, Marini P, Princivalle A, Cattabeni F. Effects of postnatal or adult chronic acetylcholinesterase inhibition on muscarinic receptors, phosphoinositide turnover and m1 mRNA expression. Eur J Pharmacol 1993; 248:281-8.

  32. Guillette EA, Meza MM, Aquilar MG, Soto AD, Garcia IE. An anthropological approach to the evaluation of preschool children exposed to pesticides in Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 1998; 106:347-53.

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  34. Tong S. Lead exposure and cognitive development: persistence and a dynamic pattern. J Paediatr Child Health 1998; 34:114-8.

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  36. Goldman LR. Chemicals and children's environment: what we don't know about risks. Environ Health Perspect 1998; 106:875-80.

  37. Zahm SH, Ward MH, Blair A. Pesticides and cancer. Occup Med 1997; 12:269-89.

  38. Zahm SH, Blair A. Cancer among migrant and seasonal farmworkers: an epidemiologic review and research agenda. Am J Ind Med 1993; 24:753-66.

  39. Zahm SH, Blair A. Pesticides and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Res 1992; 52:5485s-5488s.

  40. Morrison HI, Wilkins K, Semenciw R, Mao Y, Wigle D. Herbicides and cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1992; 84:1866-74.

  41. Hayes HM, Tarone RE, Cantor KP. On the association between canine malignant lymphoma and opportunity for exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Environ Res 1995; 70:119-25.

  42. Fear NT, Roman E, Reeves G, Pannett B. Childhood cancer and paternal employment in agriculture: the role of pesticides. Br J Cancer 1998; 77:825-9.

  43. Kristensen P, Andersen A, Irgens LM, Bye AS, Sundheim L. Cancer in offspring of parents engaged in agricultural activities in Norway: incidence and risk factors in the farm environment. Int J Cancer 1996; 65:39-50.

  44. Pogoda JM, Preston-Martin S. Household pesticides and risk of pediatric brain tumors. Environ Health Perspect 1997; 105:1214-20.

  45. Sharpe CR, Franco EL, de Camargo B, et al. Parental exposures to pesticides and risk of Wilms' tumor in Brazil. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141:210-7.

  46. Buckley JD, Buckley CM, Ruccione K, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Analysis by immunophenotype. The Childrens Cancer Group. Leukemia 1994; 8:856-64.

  47. Zahm SH, Ward MH. Pesticides and childhood cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1998; 106:893-908.

  48. Daniels JL, Olshan AF, Savitz DA. Pesticides and childhood cancers. Environ Health Perspect 1997; 105:1068-77.

  49. Lowengart RA, Peters JM, Cicioni C, al. e. Childhood leukemia and parents' occupation and home exposures. J Natl Cancer Instit 1987; 79:39-46.

  50. Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. Sacramento, CA: State of California Environmental Protection Agency, 1998.

  51. Pastore LM, Hertz-Picciotto I, Beaumont JJ. Risk of stillbirth from occupational and residential exposures. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54:511-8.

  52. Restrepo M, Munoz N, Day N, et al. Birth defects among children born to a population occupationally exposed to pesticides in Colombia. Scand J Work Environ Health 1990; 16:239-46.

  53. Schwartz DA, LoGerfo JP. Congenital limb reduction defects in the agricultural setting. Am J Public Health 1988; 78:654-8.

  54. Lin S, Marshall EG, Davidson GK. Potential parental exposure to pesticides and limb reduction defects. Scand J Work Environ Health 1994; 20:166-79.

  55. Garry V, Schreinemachers D, Harkins M, Griffith J. Pesticide appliers, biocides, and birth defects in rural minnesota. Environ Hlth Persp 1996; 104:394-399.

  56. Gray L, Ostby J, Kelce W. Developmental effects of an environmental antiandrogen: the fungicide vinclozolin alters sex differentiation of the male rat. Tox Appl Pharm 1994; 129:46-52.

  57. Guillette LJ, Jr., Gross TS, Masson GR, Matter JM, Percival HF, Woodward AR. Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102:680-8.

  58. Cummings AM. Methoxychlor as a model for environmental estrogens. Crit Rev Toxicol 1997; 27:367-79.

  59. Cooper R, Chadwick R, Rehnberg G, Goldman J, al. e. Effect of lindane on hormonal control of reproductive function in the female rat. Tox Appl Pharm 1989; 99:384-394.

  60. Chadwick R, Cooper R, Chang J, al. e. Possible antiestrogenic activity of lindane in female rats. J Biochem Toxicol 1988; 3:147158.

  61. Bradlow HL, Davis DL, Lin G, Sepkovic D, Tiwari R. Effects of pesticides on the ratio of 16 alpha/2-hydroxyestrone: a biologic marker of breast cancer risk. Environ Health Perspect 1995; 103 Suppl 7:147-50.

  62. Cooper RL, Stoker TE, Goldman JM, Parrish MB, Tyrey L. Effect of atrazine on ovarian function in the rat. Reprod Toxicol 1996; 10:257-64.

  63. Danzo BJ. Environmental xenobiotics may disrupt normal endocrine function by interfering with the binding of physiological ligands to steroid receptors and binding proteins. Environ Health Perspect 1997; 105:294-301.

  64. Tilson HA. Developmental neurotoxicology of endocrine disruptors and pesticides: identification of information gaps and research needs. Environ Health Perspect 1998; 106:80711.

  65. Thomas P. Pesticide-induced immunotoxicity: are Great Lakes residents at risk? Environ Hlth Persp 1995; 103:55-61.

  66. Olden K. A Bad Start for Disadvantaged Children. Environ Hlth Persp 1996; 104:462-463.

  67. Bearer C. How are children different from adults? Environ Hlth Persp 1995; 103:712.

  68. EPA US. Environmental Health Threats to Children. Washington DC: U.S. EPA, 1996.

  69. Clinton W. Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. Washington DC: The White House, 1997.

  70. NRC. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1993.

  71. Wiles R, Campbell C. Pesticides in Children's Food. Washington DC: Environmental Working Group, 1993.

  72. Plunkett L. Differences between adults and children affecting exposure assessment. In: Guzelian P, ed. Similarities And Differences Between Children and Adults: Implications for Risk Assessment. Washington DC: International Life Sciences Institute, 1992.

  73. Cline R. Pentachlorophenol measurements in body fluids of people in log homes and workplaces. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol 1989; 18:475-481.

  74. Fenske R, Curry P, Wandelmaier F, Ritter L. Development of dermal and resipratory sampling procedures for human exposure to pesticides in indoor environments. J Expos Anal Environ Epi 1991; 1:11-30.

  75. Harbison RD. Comparative toxicity of some selected pesticides in neonatal and adult rats. Tox Appl Pharm 1975; 32:443-446.

  76. Benke G, Murphy S. The influence of age on the toxicity and metabolism of methyl parathion and parathion in male and female rats. Tox Appl Pharm 1975; 31:254-269.

  77. Spyker JM, Avery DL. Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to the organophosphate diazinon in mice. J Toxicol and Environ Health 1977:9891002.

  78. Whitney KD, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. Developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos: cellular mechanisms. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1995; 134:53-62.

  79. Davies H, Richter R, Kiefer M, Broonfield C, JSowalla, Furlong C. The effect of human serum paraoxonase polymorphism is reversed with diazoxon, soman, and sarin. Nat Genet 1996; 14:334-336.

  80. Grossman J. What's hiding under the sink: dangers of household pesticides. Environ Hlth Persp 1995; 103:550-554.

  81. Furlong CE, Richter RJ, Seidel SL, Motulsky AG. Role of genetic polymorphism of human plasma paraoxonase/arylesterase in hydrolysis of the insecticide metabolites chlorpyrifos oxon and paraoxon. Am J Hum Genet 1988; 43:230-8.

  82. Li WF, Costa LG, Furlong CE. Serum paraoxonase status: a major factor in determining resistance to organophosphates. J Toxicol Environ Health 1993; 40:337-46.

  83. Reigart J. Pesticides and children. Ped Annals 1995; 24:663-668.

  84. Foster D, Kramer F. AP probes U.S. secret child labor. Associated Press. New York, December 14, 1997.

  85. Reigart JR. Report of the Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regarding the Selection of Five Regulations For Re-Evaluation. Washington DC, 1998.

  86. Wallinga D. Putting Children First: Making pesticide levels in food safer for infants & children. New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, 1998.

  87. Code of Federal Regulations. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996:570.2.

  88. Code of Federal Regulations. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996:570.70.

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  91. Wilk V. Health hazards to children in agriculture. Am J Ind Med 1993; 24:283-290.

  92. Mendoza M. Toughest child labor laws are not enforced. Associated Press, 1997.

  93. Pollack S, McConnell R, Gallelli M, Schmidt J, Obregon R, Landrigan P. Pesticide exposure and working conditions among migrant farmworker children in western New York State, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, 1990.

  94. Hooks C, Weinman J, Gryboski K, Connally B. Helping Farmworkers Avoid Cancer. Washington DC: Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), 1998.

  95. Dobnik V, Anthony T. Farmers used to own slaves; now they rent them. Associated Press, December 15, 1997.

  96. Holt L. Lead poisoning in infancy. Am J Dis Child 1923; 25:299-233.

  97. NIOSH. Report to Congress on Workers' Home Contamination Study Conducted Under The Workers' Family Protection Act (29 U.S.C. 671a). Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1995.

  98. Treble RG, Thompson TS, Morton DN. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop. Environ Res 1998; 77:62-5.

  99. Nunez CM, Klitzman S, Goodman A. Lead exposure among automobile radiator repair workers and their children in New York City. Am J Ind Med 1993; 23:763-77.

  100. Braun S. Roach Men Left Toxic Trail. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, October 12, 1997:A1.

  101. Methyl parathion comes inside. Environ Hlth Persp 1997; 105:690-691.

  102. Easley C, Laughlin J, Gold R, Schmidt K. Detergents and water temperature as factors in methyl parathion removal from denim fabrics. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1982; 28:239-244.

  103. Finley E, Metcalfe G, McDermott F. Efficacy of home laundering in removal of DDT, methyl parathion, and toxaphene residues from contaminated fabrics. Bull Environ Contam Tox 1974; 12:268-274.

  104. Laughlin J, Gold R. Laundering Pesticide Contaminated Clothing: University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

  105. EPA. Worker Protection Standard, Final Rule. 57 Federal Register 163 1992:38121.

  106. Woodard B, Ferguson B, Wilson D. DDT levels in milk of rural indigent blacks. Am J Dis Child 1976; 130:400-403.

  107. Mattison DR, Wohlleb J, To T, et al. Pesticide concentrations in Arkansas breast milk. J Ark Med Soc 1992; 88:553-7.

  108. Somogyi A, Beck H. Nurturing and breast-feeding: exposure to chemicals in breast milk. Environ Health Perspect 1993; 101 Suppl 2:45-52.

  109. Rogan WJ. Pollutants in breast milk. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996; 150:981-90.

  110. Wolff MS. Occupationally derived chemicals in breast milk. Am J Ind Med 1983; 4:259-81.

  111. FDA. Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring, 19871994. Washington DC: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1996.

  112. Service AM. Pesticide Data Program: Annual Summary Calendar Year 1995. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1997.

  113. Wiles R. A Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce. Washington DC: Environmental Working Group, 1995.

  114. Wiles R, Davies K. Pesticides in Baby Food. Washington DC: Environmental Working Group, 1995.

  115. Melnyk LJ, Berry MR, Sheldon LS. Dietary exposure from pesticide application on farms in the Agricultural Health Pilot Study. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 1997; 7:61-80.

  116. Alavanja M, Sandler D, McMaster, al. e. The agricultural health study. Env Health Persp 1996; 104:362-369.

  117. Cunningham S. U.S. Farmworkers in the 90s. Food First Action Alert. Oakland, CA: Institute for Food & Development Policy (Food First), 1994.

  118. NRC. Safe Water From Every Tap: Improving Water Service to Small Communities. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

  119. EPA. Pesticides in Ground Water Database. A Compilation of Monitoring Studies: 19711991. National Summary. Washington DC: U.S. EPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, 1992.

  120. EPA US. National Survey of Pesticides in Drinking Water Wells: Phase I Report. Washington DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990.

  121. Survey USG. National Water Quality Assessment Pesticide National Synthesis Project. Provisional Data. Washington DC, 1997.

  122. Cohen B, Wiles R. Tough to Swallow: How Pesticide Companies Profit from Poisoning America's Tap Water. Washington DC: Environmental Working Group, 1997.

  123. Wiles R, Cohen B, Campbell C, Elderkin S. Tap Water Blues: Herbicides in Drinking Water. Washington DC: Environmental Working Group, 1994.

  124. DPR. The 1996 Well Inventory Report. Vol. 1998: California Department of Pesticide Regulation, 1997.

  125. Safe Drinking Water Act as Amended, sections 14151416, and 1418. 1996.

  126. Baker L, Fitzell D, Seiber J, Parker T, al. e. Ambient air concentrations of pesticides in California. Environ Sci Technol 1996; 30:13651368.

  127. Davies K, Wiles R. Toxic Farm Fumigants Drifting Into California Neighborhoods. Washington DC: Environmental Working Group, 1996.

  128. Glotfelty D, Seiber J, Liljedahl L. Pesticides in fog. Nature 1987; 325:602-605.

  129. Camann D, Geno P, Harding H, Giardino N, Bond A, al. e. A pilot study of pesticides in indoor air in relation to agricultural applications. Proc Indoor Air 1993; 2:207-212.

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  131. Lewis R, Bond A, Johnson D, Hsu J. Measurement of atmospheric concentrations of common household pesticides: a pilot study. Environ Monit Assess 1988; 10:59-73.

  132. Lewis R, Bond A, Fortmann R, Sheldon L, Camann D. Determination of routes of exposure of infants and toddlers to household pesticides: a pilot study to test methods, Air and Waste Management Association, 84th Annual Meeting, Vancouver, British Columbia, 1991.

  133. Gurunathan S, Robson M, Freeman N, Buckley B, Roy A, al. e. Accumulation of chlorpyrifos on residential surfaces and toys accessible to children. Environ Hlth Persp 1998; 106:916.

  134. Calabrese EJ, Stanek EJ. What proportion of household dust is derived from outdoor soil? J Soil Contam 1992; 1:253-263.

  135. Camann D, Harding H, Lewis R. Trapping of particle-associated pesticides in indoor air by polyurethane foam and exploration of soil track-in as a pesticide source, Indoor Air '90: Proc 5th Intl Conf on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Toronto, 1990. Vol. 2.

  136. Lewis R, Roberts J, Chuang J, Camann D, Ruby M. Measuring and reducing exposure to pollutants in house dust (letter). Am J Pub Hlth 1995; 85:1168.

  137. Roberts J, Dickey P. Exposure of children to pollutants in house dust and indoor air. Rev Environ Contam Tox 1995; 143:59-78.

  138. Roberts J, Budd W, Ruby M, Camann D, et al. Human exposure to pollutants in the floor dust of homes and offices. J Expos Anal Environ Epi 1992; Suppl 1:127146.

  139. Roberts J, Camann D. Pilot study of a cotton glove press test for assessing exposure to pesticides in house dust. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1989; 43:717-724.

  140. Lewis R, RC F, DE C. Evaluation of methods for monitoring the potential exposure of small children to pesticides in the residential environment. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1994; 26:37-46.

  141. Camann DE, Harding HJ, Geno PW. Relationship among drag sled, PUF roller, and hand press transfer of pesticide residues from floors, Measurement of Toxic Air Pollutants, Proceedings of US EPA/ADWMA International Conference, Durham, North Carolina, 1994.

  142. Colt J, Zahm S, Camann D, Hartge P. Comparison of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust samples collected from used vacuum cleaner bags and from high volume surface samplers. Environ Hlth Persp 1998; (In press).

  143. Davis JR, Brownson RC, Garcia R. Family pesticide use in the home, garden, orchard, and yard. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1992; 22:260-6.

  144. Nishioka M, Burkholder H, Brinkman M, Gordon S. Measuring transport of lawn-applied herbicide acids from turf to home: correlation of dislodgeable 2,4-D turf residues with carpet dust and carpet surface residues. Environ Sci Technol 1996; 30:3313-3320.

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Charity Navigator awards NRDC its 4-star top rating.
Worth magazine named NRDC one of America's 100 best charities.
NRDC meets the highest standards of the Wise Giving Alliance of the Better Business Bureau.

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Switchboard Blogs

Congress asks EPA what went wrong with Enlist Duo
posted by Sylvia Fallon, 2/12/16
When water hurts - in Flint and beyond
posted by Kristi Pullen, 2/1/16
Why I am a fan of Carbon Disclosure Project's latest report
posted by Linda Greer, 1/27/16

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