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Aho, P. E., G. M. Filip and F. F. Lombard. 1987. Decay fungi and wounding in advance grand and white fir regeneration. Forest Science 33: 347-355.

Alexander, G. R. and E. A. Hansen. 1986. Sand bed load in a brook trout stream. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 6: 9-23.

Alexander, S. A., J. M. Skelly and R. S. Webb. 1981. Effects of Heterobasidion annosum on radial growth in southern pine beetle-infested loblolly pine. Phytopathology 71: 479-481.

Allen, C. R., R. S. Lutz and S. Demarais. 1995. Red imported fire ant impacts on northern bobwhite populations. Ecological Applications 5: 632-638.

Amaranthus, M. P. and D. A. Perry. 1994. The functioning of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the field: linkages in space and time. Plant and Soil 159: 133-140.

Amaranthus, M. P., D. Page-Dumroese, A. Harvey, E. Cazares and L. F. Bednar. 1996. Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. Research Paper PNW-RP-494. USDA Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Research Station. 12 p.

Amaranthus, M. P., J. M. Trappe and R. J. Molina. 1989. Long-term forest productivity and the living soil. pp. 36-52 in Maintaining the Long-Term Productivity of Pacific Northwest Forest Ecosystems. D. A. Perry, R. Meurisse, B. Thomas, R. Miller, J. Boyle, J. Means, C.R. Perry, R. F. Powers, eds. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Amaranthus, M. P., R. M. Rice, N. R. Barr and R. R. Ziemer. 1985. Logging and forest roads related to increased debris slides in southwestern Oregon. Journal of Forestry 83: 229-233.

Anthony, R. G. and F. B. Isaacs. 1989. Characteristics of bald eagle nest sites in Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 53: 148-159.

Ash, A. N. 1988. Disappearance of salamanders from clearcut plots. The Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 104: 116-122.

Ash, A. N. 1997. Disappearance and return of plethodontid salamanders to clearcut plots in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains. Conservation Biology 11: 983-989.

Ashley, E. P. and J. T. Robinson. 1996. Road mortality of amphibians, reptiles and other wildlife on the Long Point Causeway, Lake Erie, Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 110: 403-412.

Baker, M. D. and M. J. Lacki. 1997. Short-term changes in bird communities in response to silvicultural prescriptions. Forest Ecology and Management 96: 27-36.

Bangs, E. E., T. N. Bailey and M. F. Portner. 1989. Survival rates of adult female moose on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 53: 557-563.

Bellinger, R. G., F. W. Ravlin and M. L. McManus. 1989. Forest edge effects and their influence on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) egg mass distribution. Environmental Entomology 18: 840-843.

Bilby, R. E. 1985. Contributions of road surface sediment to a western Washington stream. Forest Science 31: 827-838.

Bilby, R. E., K. Sullivan and S. H. Duncan. 1989. The generation and fate of road-surface sediment in forested watersheds in southwestern Washington. Forest Science 35: 453-468.

Billings, W. D. 1994. Ecological impacts of cheatgrass and resultant fire on ecosystems in the western Great Basin. pp. 22-30 in Proceedings – Ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands. S. B. Monsen and S. G. Kitchen eds. INT-GTR-313. USDA Forest Service. Intermountain Research Station.

Bisson, P. A. and R. E. Bilby. 1982. Avoidance of suspended sediment by juvenile coho salmon. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 4: 371-374.

Brody, A. J. and M. R. Pelton. 1989. Effects of roads on black bear movements in western North Carolina. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17: 5-10.

Brusven, M. A. and K. V. Prather. 1974. Influence of stream sediments on distribution of macrobenthos. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 71: 25-32.

Bryant, M. D. and F. H. Everest. 1998. Management and condition of watersheds in southeast Alaska: the persistence of anadromous salmon. Northwest Science 72: 249-267.

Campbell, R. W., T. R. Torgersen and N. Srivastava. 1983. A suggested role for predaceous birds and ants in the population dynamics of the western spruce budworm. Forest Science 29: 779-790.

Chamberlin, T. W., R. D. Harr and F. H. Everest. 1991. Timber harvesting, silviculture, and watershed processes. In Influences of forest and rangeland management on salmonid fishes and their habitats. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 19: 181-205.

Chapman, D. W. 1988. Critical review of variables used to define effects of fines in redds of large salmonids. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 117: 1-21.

Chavez, T. D., R. L. Edmonds and C. H. Driver. 1980. Young-growth western hemlock stand infection by Heterobasidion annosum 11 years after precommercial thinning. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 10: 389-394.

Childs, S. W., S. P. Shade, D. W. R. Miles, E. Shepard and H. A. Froehlich. 1989. Soil physical properties: importance to long-term forest productivity. pp. 53-66 in Maintaining the Long-Term Productivity of Pacific Northwest Forest Ecosystems. D. A. Perry, R. Meurisse, B. Thomas, R. Miller, J. Boyle, J. Means, C.R. Perry, R. F. Powers, eds. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Cole, E. K., M. D. Pope and R. G. Anthony. 1997. Effects of road management on movement and survival of Roosevelt elk. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 1115-1126.

Corn, P. S. and R. B. Bury. 1989. Logging in western Oregon: responses of headwater habitats and stream amphibians. Forest Ecology and Management 29: 39-57.

deMaynadier, P. G. and M. L. Hunter, Jr. 1995. The relationship between forest management and amphibian ecology: a review of the North American literature. Environmental Reviews 3: 230-261.

deMaynadier, P. G. and M. L. Hunter, Jr. 1998. Effects of silvicultural edges on the distribution and abundance of amphibians in Maine. Conservation Biology 12: 340-352.

deMaynadier, P. G. and M. L. Hunter, Jr. 1999. Forest canopy closure and juvenile emigration by pool-breeding amphibians in Maine. Journal of Wildlife Management 63: 441-450.

Eaglin, G. S. and W. A. Hubert. 1993. Effects of logging and roads on substrate and trout in streams of the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13: 844-846.

Edmonds, R. L., D. C. Shaw, T. Hsiang and C. H. Driver. 1989. Impact of precommercial thinning on development of Heterobasidion annosum in western hemlock. pp. 85-94 in Proceedings of the Symposium on Research and Management of Annosus Root Disease (Heterobasidion annosum) in Western North America. W. J. Otrosina and R. F. Scharpf, tech. coord. GTR-PSW-116. USDA Forest Service. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Fahrig, L., J. H. Pedlar, S. E. Pope, P. D. Taylor and J. F. Wegner. 1995. Effect of road traffic on amphibian density. Biological Conservation 73: 177-182.

Filip, G. M. 1979. Root disease in Douglas-fir plantations is associated with infected stumps. Plant Disease Reporter 63: 580-583.

Filip, G. M., C. L. Schmitt and K. P. Hosman. 1992. Effects of harvesting season and stump size on incidence of annosus root disease of true fir. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 7: 54-56.

Findlay, C. S. and J. Bourdages. In press. Lagged response of wetland biodiversity to road construction on adjacent lands. Conservation Biology.

Forcella, F. and S. J. Harvey. 1983. Eurasian weed infestation in western Montana in relation to vegetation and disturbance. Madroño 30: 102-109.

Forman, R. T. T. and L. E. Alexander. 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 29: 207-231.

Forman, R. T. T. In press. The ecological road-effect zone of a Massachusetts (USA) suburban highway. Conservation Biology .

Franklin, J. F., D. A. Perry, T. D. Schowalter, M. E. Harmon, A. McKee and T. A. Spies. 1989. Importance of ecological diversity in maintaining long-term site productivity. pp. 82-97 in Maintaining the Long-Term Productivity of Pacific Northwest Forest Ecosystems. D. A. Perry, R. Meurisse, B. Thomas, R. Miller, J. Boyle, J. Means, C.R. Perry, R. F. Powers, eds. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Froehlich, H. A., D. W. R. Miles and R. W. Robbins. 1985. Soil bulk density recovery on compacted skid trails in central Idaho. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49: 1015-1017.

Froehlich, H. A., D. W. R. Miles and R. W. Robbins. 1986. Growth of young Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta on compacted soil in central Washington. Forest Ecology and Management 15: 285-294.

Furniss, M. J., T. D. Roelofs and C. S. Yee. 1991. Road construction and maintenance. In Influences of forest and rangeland management on salmonid fishes and their habitats. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 19: 297-323.

Gardner, B. D. and S. K. Chong. 1990. Hydrologic responses of compacted forest soils. Journal of Hydrology 112: 327-334.

Garland, T., Jr. and W. G. Bradley. 1984. Effects of a highway on Mojave Desert rodent populations. The American Midland Naturalist 111: 47-56.

Geist, J. M., J. W. Hazard and K. W. Seidel. 1989. Assessing physical conditions of some Pacific Northwest volcanic ash soils after forest harvest. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53: 946-950.

Gende, S. M., M. F. Willson, B. H. Marston, M. Jacobson and W. P. Smith. 1998. Bald eagle nesting density and success in relation to distance from clearcut logging in southeast Alaska. Biological Conservation 83: 121-126.

Gent Jr., J. A., R. Ballard, A. E. Hassan and D. K. Cassel. 1984. Impact of harvesting and site preparation on physical properties of Piedmont forest soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48: 173-177.

Gibbs, J. P. 1998. Amphibian movements in response to forest edges, roads, and streambeds in southern New England. Journal of Wildlife Management 62: 584-589.

Goheen, D. J. and E. M. Hansen. 1993. Effects of pathogens and bark beetles on forests. pp. 175-196 in Beetle-Pathogen Interactions in Conifer Forests. T.D. Schowalter and G.M. Filip, eds. Academic Press. San Diego.

Goheen, D. J., F. W. Cobb Jr., D. L. Wood and D. L. Rowney. 1985. Visitation frequencies of some insect species on Ceratocystis wageneri infected and apparently healthy ponderosa pines. Canadian Entomologist 117: 1535-1543.

Goheen, E. M. and D. J. Goheen. 1989. Losses caused by annosus root disease in Pacific Northwest forests. pp. 66-69 in Proceedings of the Symposium on Research and Management of Annosus Root Disease (Heterobasidion annosum) in Western North America. W. J. Otrosina and R. F. Scharpf, tech. coord. GTR-PSW-116. USDA Forest Service. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Gray, D. H. 1970. Effects of forest clear-cutting on the stability of natural slopes. Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists 7: 45-66.

Hansen, E. M. 1978. Incidence of Verticicladiella wagenerii and Phellinus weirii in Douglas-fir adjacent to and away from roads in western Oregon. Plant Disease Reporter 62: 179-181.

Hansen, E. M., D. J. Goheen, P. F. Hessburg, J. J. Witcosky and T. D. Schowalter. 1988. Biology and management of black-stain root disease in Douglas-fir. pp. 63-80 in Leptographium Root Diseases on Conifers. T.C. Harrington and F.W. Cobb, Jr. eds. APS Press. St. Paul, Minnesota.

Hargis, C. D., J. A. Bissonette and D. L. Turner. 1999. The influence of forest fragmentation and landscape pattern on American martens. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 157-172.

Harr, R. D., W. C. Harper and J. T. Krygier. 1975. Changes in storm hydrographs after road building and clear-cutting in the Oregon Coast Range. Water Resources Research 11: 436-444.

Hicks, B. J., J. D. Hall, P. A. Bisson and J. R. Sedell. 1991. Responses of salmonids to habitat changes. In Influences of forest and rangeland management on salmonid fishes and their habitats. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 19: 483-518.

Hillman, T. W, J. S. Griffith and W. S. Platts. 1987. Summer and winter habitat selection by juvenile chinook salmon in a highly sedimented Idaho stream. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 116: 185-195.

Human, K. G. and D. M. Gordon. 1997. Effects of Argentine ants on invertebrate biodiversity in northern California. Conservation Biology 11: 1242-1248.

Jackson, J. K. and V. H. Resh. 1989. Distribution and abundance of adult aquatic insects in the forest adjacent to a northern California stream. Environmental Entomology 18: 278-283.

Jones, J. A. and G. E. Grant. 1996. Peak flow responses to clear-cutting and roads in small and large basins, western Cascades, Oregon. Water Resources Research 32: 959-974.

Jones, J. A., F. J. Swanson, B. C. Wemple and K. U. Snyder. In press. A perspective on road effects on hydrology, geomorphology, and disturbance patches in stream networks. Conservation Biology.

Jurgensen, M. F., A. E. Harvey, R. T. Graham, D. S. Page-Dumroese, J. R. Tonn, M. J. Larsen and T. B. Jain. 1997. Impacts of timber harvesting on soil organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of inland Northwest forests. Forest Science 43: 234-251.

Keyser, A. J., G. E. Hill and E. C. Soehren. 1998. Effects of forest fragment size, nest density, and proximity to edge on the risk of predation to ground-nesting passerine birds. Conservation Biology 12: 986-994.

King, J. G. and L. C. Tennyson. 1984. Alteration of streamflow characteristics following road construction in north central Idaho. Water Resources Research 20: 1159-1163.

Kouki, J., D. G. McCullough and L. D. Marshall. 1997. Effect of forest stand and edge characteristics on the vulnerability of jack pine stands to jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus pinus) damage. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 1765-1772.

Kourtev, P. S., J. G. Ehrenfeld and W. Z. Huang. 1998. Effects of exotic plant species on soil properties in hardwood forests of New Jersey. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 105: 493-501.

Lacey, J. R., C. B. Marlow and J. R. Lane. 1989. Influence of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) on surface runoff and sediment yield. Weed Technology 3: 627-631.

Livezey, K. B. 1991. Home range, habitat use, disturbance, and mortality of Columbian black-tailed deer in Mendocino National Forest. California Fish and Game 77: 201-209.

Lloyd, D. S., J. P. Koenings and J. D. LaPerriere. 1987. Effects of turbidity in fresh waters of Alaska. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7: 18-33.

Loos, G. and P. Kerlinger. 1993. Road mortality of saw-whet and screech-owls on the Cape May peninsula. Journal of Raptor Research 27: 210-213.

Mace, R. D., J. S. Waller, T. L. Manley, L. J. Lyon and H. Zuuring. 1996. Relationships among grizzly bears, roads and habitat in the Swan Mountains, Montana. Journal of Applied Ecology 33: 1395-1404.

Marcus, W. A., G. Milner and B. Maxwell. 1998. Spotted knapweed distribution in stock camps and trails of the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness. Great Basin Naturalist 58: 156-166.

Marini, M. A., S. K. Robinson and E. J. Heske. 1995. Edge effects on nest predation in the Shawnee National Forest, southern Illinois. Biological Conservation 74: 203-213.

Marschner, H. and B. Dell. 1994. Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Plant and Soil 159: 89-102.

Martin, C. W. 1988. Soil disturbance by logging in New England – review and management recommendations. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 5: 30-34.

McCashion, J. D. and R. M. Rice. 1983. Erosion on logging roads in northwestern California: How much is avoidable? Journal of Forestry 81: 23-26.

McDonald, G. I., N. E. Martin and A. E. Harvey. 1987. Armillaria in the Northern Rockies: Pathogenicity and Host Susceptibility on Pristine and Disturbed Sites. USDA Forest Service. Research Note INT-371. 5 p.

McIver, J. D., T. R. Torgersen and N. J. Cimon. 1997. A supercolony of the thatch ant Formica obscuripes Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Blue Mountains of Oregon. Northwest Science 71: 18-29.

McLellan, B. N. and D. M. Shackleton. 1988. Grizzly bears and resource-extraction industries: Effects of roads on behaviour, habitat use and demography. Journal of Applied Ecology 25: 451-460.

McNab, W. H. and M. Meeker. 1987. Oriental bittersweet: a growing threat to hardwood silviculture in the Appalachians. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 4: 174-177.

Mech, L. D. 1989. Wolf population survival in an area of high road density. American Midland Naturalist 121: 387-389.

Mech, L. D., S. H. Fritts, G. L. Radde and W. J. Paul. 1988. Wolf distribution and road density in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 16: 85-87.

Megahan, W. F. 1972. Subsurface flow interception by a logging road in mountains of Central Idaho. pp. 350-356 in Watersheds in Transition. Proceedings of a symposium on "Watersheds in Transition." S. C. Csallany, T. G. McLaughlin and W. D. Striffler, eds. Fort Collings, Colorado. June 19-22, 1972. AWRA. Urbana, Illinois.

,Megahan, W. F. 1983. Hydrologic effects of clearcutting and wildfire on steep granitic slopes in Idaho. Water Resources Research 19: 811-819.

Mills, L. S. 1995. Edge effects and isolation: red-backed voles on forest remnants. Conservation Biology 9: 395-403.

Mladenoff, D. J., T. A. Sickley, R. G. Haight and A. P. Wydeven. 1995. A regional landscape analysis and prediction of favorable gray wolf habitat in the northern Great Lakes region. Conservation Biology 9: 279-294.

Monsen, S. B. 1994. The competitive influences of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) on site restoration. pp. 43-50 in Proceedings ( Ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands. S. B. Monsen and S. G. Kitchen, eds. INT-GTR-313. USDA Forest Service. Intermountain Research Station.

Montgomery, D. R. 1994. Road surface drainage, channel initiation, and slope instability. Water Resources Research 30: 1925-1932.

Montgomery, D. R., J. M. Buffington, N. P. Peterson, D. Schuett-Hames and T. P. Quinn. 1996. Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface mobility and embryo survival. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 1061-1070.

Morrison, D. and K. Mallett. 1996. Silvicultural management of armillaria root disease in western Canadian forests. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 18: 194-199.

Newcombe, C. P. and J. O. T. Jensen. 1996. Channel suspended sediment and fisheries: a synthesis for quantitative assessment of risk and impact. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 16: 693-727.

Otrosina, W. J., N. J. Hess, S. J. Zarnoch, T. J. Perry and J. P. Jones. 1997. Blue-stain fungi associated with roots of southern pine trees attacked by the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis. Plant Disease 81: 942-945.

Oxley, D. J., M. B. Fenton and G. R. Carmody. 1974. The effects of roads on populations of small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology 11: 51-59.

Page-Dumroese, D. S., A. E. Harvey, M. F. Jurgensen and M. P. Amaranthus. 1998. Impacts of soil compaction and tree stump removal on soil properties and outplanted seedlings in northern Idaho, USA. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 78: 29-34.

Parendes, L. A. and J. A. Jones. In press. Light availability, dispersal, and exotic plant invasion along roads and streams in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Conservation Biology.

Paton, P. W. C. 1994. The effect of edge on avian nest success: how strong is the evidence? Conservation Biology 8: 17-26.

Petranka, J. W., M. E. Eldridge and K. E. Haley. 1993. Effects of timber harvesting on southern Appalachian salamanders. Conservation Biology 7: 363-370.

Phillips, R. W., R. L. Lantz, E. W. Claire and J. R. Moring. 1975. Some effects of gravel mixtures on emergence of coho salmon and steelhead trout fry. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 3: 461-466.

Platts, W. S., R. J. Torquemada, M. L. McHenry and C. K. Graham. 1989. Changes in salmon spawning and rearing habitat from increased delivery of fine sediment to the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 118: 274-283.

Porneluzi, P. A. and J. Faaborg. 1999. Season-long fecundity, survival, and viability of ovenbirds in fragmented and unfragmented landscapes. Conservation Biology 13: 1151-1161.

Porter, S. D. and D. A. Savignano. 1990. Invasion of polygyne fire ants decimates native ants and disrupts arthropod community. Ecology 71: 2095-2106.

Pough, F. H., E. M. Smith, D. H. Rhodes and A. Collazo. 1987. The abundance of salamanders in forest stands with different histories of disturbance. Forest Ecology and Management 20: 1-9.

Puglisi, M. J., J. S. Lindzey and E. D. Bellis. 1974. Factors associated with highway mortality of white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 38: 799-807.

Purser, M. D. and T. W. Cundy. 1992. Changes in soil physical properties due to cable yarding and their hydrologic implications. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 7: 36-39.

Randall, J. M. and M. Rejmanek. 1993. Interference of bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) with growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings in a forest plantation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 1507-1513.

Reed, R. A., J. Johnson-Barnard and W. L. Baker. 1996. Contribution of roads to forest fragmentation in the Rocky Mountains. Conservation Biology 10: 1098-1106.

Reeves, G. H., F. H. Everest and J. R. Sedell. 1993. Diversity of juvenile anadromous salmonid assemblages in coastal Oregon basins with different levels of timber harvest. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122: 309-317.

Reid, L. M. and T. Dunne. 1984. Sediment production from forest road surfaces. Water Resources Research 20: 1753-1761.

Reilly, R. E. and H. E. Green. 1974. Deer mortality on a Michigan interstate highway. Journal of Wildlife Management 38: 16-19.

Reisinger, T. W., G. L. Simmons and P. E. Pope. 1988. The impact of timber harvesting on soil properties and seedling growth in the South. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 12: 58-67.

Robinson, S. K., F. R. Thompson III, T. M. Donovan, D. R. Whitehead and J. Faaborg. 1995. Regional forest fragmentation and the nesting success of migratory birds. Science 267: 1987-1990.

Roland, J. 1993. Large-scale forest fragmentation increases the duration of tent caterpillar outbreak. Oecologia 93: 25-30.

Romin, L. A. and J. A. Bissonette. 1996. Temporal and spatial distribution of highway mortality of mule deer on newly constructed roads at Jordanelle Reservoir, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 56: 1-11.

Rosen, P. C. and C. H. Lowe. 1994. Highway mortality of snakes in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. Biological Conservation 68: 143-148.

Rosenberg, D. K., K. A. Swindle and R. G. Anthony. 1994. Habitat associations of California red-backed voles in young and old-growth forests in western Oregon. Northwest Science 68: 266-272.

Rosenberg, K. V., J. D. Lowe and A. A. Dhondt. 1999. Effects of forest fragmentation on breeding tanagers: a continental perspective. Conservation Biology 13: 568-583.

Rost, G. R. and J. A. Bailey. 1979. Distribution of mule deer and elk in relation to roads. Journal of Wildlife Management 43: 634-641.

Roth, L. F., L. Rolph and S. Cooley. 1980. Identifying infected ponderosa pine stumps to reduce costs of controlling Armillaria root rot. Journal of Forestry 78: 145-151.

Rothman, L. D. and J. Roland. 1998. Forest fragmentation and colony performance of forest tent caterpillar. Ecography 21: 383-391.

Ryan, S. E. and G. E. Grant. 1991. Downstream effects of timber harvesting on channel morphology in Elk River Basin, Oregon. Journal of Environmental Quality 20: 60-72.

Schowalter, T. D. 1989. Canopy arthropod community structure and herbivory in old-growth and regenerating forests in western Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19: 318-322.

Schowalter, T. D. and J. E. Means. 1989. Pests link site productivity to the landscape. pp. 248-250 in Maintaining the Long-Term Productivity of Pacific Northwest Forest Ecosystems. D. A. Perry, R. Meurisse, B. Thomas, R. Miller, J. Boyle, J. Means, C.R. Perry, R. F. Powers, eds. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Scrivener, J. C. and M. J. Brownlee. 1989. Effects of forest harvesting on spawning gravel and incubation survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) in Carnation Creek, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46: 681-696.

Seibert, H. C. and J. H. Conover. 1991. Mortality of vertebrates and invertebrates on an Athens County, Ohio, highway. Ohio Journal of Science 91: 163-166.

Shaw III, C. G. 1981. Infection of western hemlock and Sitka spruce thinning stumps by Fomes annosus and Armillaria mellea in southeast Alaska. Plant Disease 65: 967-971.

Smith, R. S., Jr. 1989. History of Heterobasidion annosum in Western United States. pp. 10-16 in Proceedings of the Symposium on Research and Management of Annosus Root Disease (Heterobasidion annosum) in Western North America. W. J. Otrosina and R. F. Scharpf, tech. coord. GTR-PSW-116. USDA Forest Service. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Stapanian, M. A., S. D. Sundberg, G. A. Baumgardner and A. Liston. 1998. Alien plant species composition and associations with anthropogenic disturbance in North American forests. Plant Ecology 139: 49-62.

Stiles, J. H. and R. H. Jones. 1998. Distribution of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in road and powerline habitats. Landscape Ecology 335: 335-346.

Swanson, F. J., J. L. Clayton, W. F. Megahan and G. Bush. 1989. Erosional processes and long-term site productivity. pp. 67-81 in Maintaining the Long-Term Productivity of Pacific Northwest Forest Ecosystems. D. A. Perry, R. Meurisse, B. Thomas, R. Miller, J. Boyle, J. Means, C.R. Perry, R. F. Powers, eds. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Swift Jr., L. W. 1984. Soil losses from roadbeds and cut and fill slopes in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 8: 209-216.

Swihart, R. K. and N. A. Slade. 1984. Road crossing in Sigmodon hispidus and Microtus ochrogaster. Journal of Mammalogy 65: 357-360.

Thurber, J. M., R. O. Peterson, T. D. Drummer and S. A. Thomasma. 1994. Gray wolf response to refuge boundaries and roads in Alaska. Wildlife Society Bulletin 22: 61-68.

Torgersen, C. E., D. M. Price, H. W. Li and B. A. McIntosh. 1999. Multiscale thermal refugia and stream habitat associations of chinook salmon in northeastern Oregon. Ecological Applications 9: 301-319.

Torgersen, T. R. and E. L. Bull. 1995. Down logs as habitat for forest-dwelling ants ( the primary prey of pileated woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. Northwest Science 69: 294-303.

Troendle, C. A. and R. M. King. 1985. The effect of timber harvest on the Fool Creek Watershed, 30 years later. Water Resources Research 21: 1915-1922.

Trombulak, S. C. and C. A. Frissell. In press. Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conservation Biology .

Van Dyke, F. G., R. H. Brocke and H. G. Shaw. 1986. Use of road track counts as indices of mountain lion presence. Journal of Wildlife Management 50: 102-109.

Van Dyke, F. G., R. H. Brocke, H. G. Shaw, B. B. Ackerman, T. P. Hemker and F. G. Lindzey. 1986. Reactions of mountain lions to logging and human activity. Journal of Wildlife Management 50: 95-102.

Wargo, P. M. and C. G. Shaw, III. 1985. Armillaria root rot: the puzzle is being solved. Plant Disease 69: 826-832.

Waters, J. R. and C. J. Zabel. 1995. Northern flying squirrel densities in fir forests of northeastern California. Journal of Wildlife Management 59: 858-866.

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