This Green Life
A monthly journal of sorts by Sheryl Eisenberg

NOVEMBER 2011 (links updated 2014): Many a person has given up meat on learning about the cruelties of factory farming. Turns out it's not required...or enough.

Ethical Eggs, Dairy and Meat
Animal foods that are good enough to eat

There is something terribly wrong with the industrial agriculture system that produces almost all of our country's eggs, dairy and meat. By wrong, I mean unethical, and I am not talking about the killing part at the end of the process, but everything that precedes it. I am talking about the way farm animals are treated for the whole of their lives.

It goes by the name of factory farming because it deals with animals as just so many inanimate parts on an assembly line. The treatment involves great cruelty of a kind we outlaw for animals in pet shops and zoos. Only livestock is allowed this kind of abuse.

Nearly all of us are implicated in it. Vegans are an exception, of course, and more power to them. But most of the rest of us, meat-eaters and vegetarians alike, perpetuate the abuse, not by intention, but by its opposite, inattention.

We ignore what could be easily known—that factory farm animals, including dairy cows and egg-laying chickens, suffer such severe crowding, they cannot steer clear of their own manure. Egg-laying hens do not have room to flap their wings; sows, to turn around. In place of food, factory farm animals get feed, which may include waste and parts from other animals—even animals of their own species. They are routinely exposed to crippling health conditions and disease from agricultural practices to accelerate their growth and they undergo painful, non-medical procedures, from debeaking to tail docking (amputation), without anesthetics. It can be safely said, without anthropomorphizing, that a factory farm animal's life is not worth living.

There are two ways you can stop supporting this abuse. One, of course, is to quit eating animal products altogether (or even most of the time). By joining the ever-growing ranks of vegans, you will have the satisfaction of knowing no animals were killed, hurt or even made uncomfortable for your eating pleasure.

The other way is to limit yourself to animal foods that are humanely produced. How can you recognize them? When shopping at a farmers market, ask the farmers about their practices. (For help on what to ask, visit Sustainable Table's handouts page and scroll down to the list of "Questions to Ask" handouts.)

Here are some of the key practices that indicate a humane farm:
  • Chickens are uncaged, spend a significant portion of their day in the real outdoors (not a concrete yard) and receive high quality food that includes grasses, grains and insects. Egg-laying hens are not force molted, which involves starvation; and poultry are not given growth promoters.

  • Cattle are raised on pasture and eat only (or mostly) grass, hay and silage. Cows raised for dairy are not given rBGH; cows raised for beef spend little or no time in the feedlot.

  • Hogs have housing with proper bedding that allows them to root and nest, are provided with access to the real outdoors (not a concrete yard) for a good part of the day and can forage for roots and bugs in the dirt. Sows are not confined to farrowing pens, and piglets are not bought from other farms where their mothers were so confined.

  • The animals do not get antibiotics for non-therapeutic purposes.
When shopping for animal products online or at the supermarket, look for a reliable eco-label guaranteeing that stringent standards to protect animal welfare have been followed. The standards should include all or most of the criteria listed above, and then some. Adherence should be verified by third-party certifiers. As of this writing, Animal Welfare Approved and Certified Humane are the best such labels. Other choices include American Grassfed and Food Alliance Certified. Check out their websites to learn where to get products certified by each.

What is NOT a meaningful indicator of animal welfare are the words "free-range," "free-roaming," "cage-free," "grass-fed" or "natural" on the product label. They are marketing terms for the most part and do not guarantee what they seem to promise. For instance, a so-called free-range animal might never even get outdoors.

As to the cost of humanely raised animal food, yes, you guessed right, it's higher. A decent life, even of the most basic variety, can't be had for a bargain basement price, as any pet-owner knows. Sometimes we just have to put our money where our mouths are.

—Sheryl Eisenberg

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On This Topic

Free-range turkeys
Free-range chidkens and movable coop
Pig resting outdoors
Scenes of humanely raised animals at Stone Barns, a sustainable farm, restaurant and education center in Pocantico Hills, NY. See more photos on my blog.

- Outdoor time in a natural environment.
- Access to shelter.
- Ability to engage in natural behaviors.
- Food that the species evolved to eat.
- No hormones or growth promoters.
- No non-therapeutic use of antibiotics.
- Gentle, careful handling.

Animal Welfare Eco-labels
ANIMAL WELFARE ECO-LABELS can help you find animal foods that were produced according to stringent animal welfare standards. The best ones to look for are: Animal Welfare Approved and Certified Humane.


Compassion in World Farming
An Introduction to Farm Animals

Farm Forward
Food Choices

The Huffington Post
Avoiding Factory Farm Foods: An Eater's Guide
What Is a Vegan? What Do Vegans Eat?

The Vegan Society
Become a Vegan

The Humane Society of the U.S.
The Welfare of Animals in the Meat, Egg, and Dairy Industries

Label Lookup for Food

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Sheryl Eisenberg is a writer, web developer and long-time advisor to NRDC. With her firm, Mixit Productions (, she brought NRDC online in 1996, designed NRDC's first websites, and continues to develop special web features for NRDC. She created and, for several years, wrote the Union of Concerned Scientists' green living column, Greentips, and has designed and contributed content to many nonprofit sites. Sheryl makes her home in Tribeca (NYC), where—along with her children, Sophie and Gabe, and husband, Peter—she tries to put her environmental principles into practice. No fooling.
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