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Arsenic and Old Laws
A Scientific and Public Health Analysis of Arsenic Occurrence in Drinking Water, Its Health Effects, and EPA's Outdated Arsenic Tap Water Standard

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General Treatises

National Academy of Sciences. 1999. Arsenic in Drinking Water. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

National Academy of Sciences. 1993a. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

National Academy of Sciences. 1993b. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

National Academy of Sciences. 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

National Academy of Sciences. 1977. Arsenic. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. No. TP-92-02. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1984. Health Assessment Document for Inorganic Arsenic. Final Report. Report No. EPA- 600/8-83-021F, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, N.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. Special Report on Ingested Inorganic Arsenic. Skin Cancer, Nutritional Essentiality, July. EPA Report # EPA/625/3-87/013, Risk Assessment Forum, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. IRIS Background Document, Document 1A, Sec., Route of Exposure, 3/15/93, Washington, D.C.

U.S Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Final Summary of Arsenic Treatment Workshop January 18, 1994.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. Drinking Water Criteria Document for Arsenic. Office of Water, Washington, DC.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Notice. 61 FR 17959-18011.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1998. IRIS on-line file: Arsenic, Inorganic: 4/10/98, 0278.

U.S Environmental Protection Agency. 1999. Arsenic in Drinking Water: Treatment Technologies: Removal.

World Health Organization. 1987. Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. Arsenic. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 23, Copenhagen, Denmark, Regional Office for Europe.

World Health Organization. 1981. Environmental Health Criteria 18: Arsenic. Geneva, Switzerland, International Programme on Chemical Safety.

Other Reports and Papers

Calderon RL, Hudgens E, Le XC, Schreinmachers, Thomas DJ. Excretion of arsenic in urine as a function of exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Environ. Health Perspect. 107: 663-667 (1999).

Chen CJ, Chen CW, Wu MM, Kuo TL. Cancer potential in liver, lung, bladder and kidney due to ingested inorganic arsenic in drinking water. Br. J. Cancer 66: 888-892 (1992).

Concha G, Nermell B, Vahter M. Metabolism of inorganic arsenic in children with chronic high arsenic exposure in northern Argentina. Environ. Health Perspect. 106: 355-359 (1998a).

Concha G, Vogler G, Lezeano D, Nermell B, Vahter M. Exposure to inorganic arsenic metabolites during early human development. Toxicol. Sci. 44: 185-190 (1998b).

Hopenhayn-Rich C, Biggs ML, Smith AH, Kalman DA, Moore LE. Methylation study of a population environmentally exposed to arsenic in drinking water. Environ. Health Perspect. 104:620-628 (1996a).

Hopenhayn-Rich C, Biggs ML, Fuchs, A, Bergoglio, R, Tello, EE, Nicoli, H, Smith, AH, Bladder Cancer Mortality Associated with Arsenic in Drinking Water in Argentina. Epidemiology 7:117-124 (1996b).

Kurttio P, Komulainen H, Hakala E, Kahelin H, Pekkanen J. Urinary excretion of arsenic species after exposure to arsenic present in drinking water. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 34: 297-305 (1998).

Lewis, D., Southwick, J., Oullet-Hellstrom, R., Rench, J., , Calderon, R., Drinking Water Arsenic in Utah: A Cohort Mortality Study. Environ. Health Perspect. 107: 359-365 (1999)

Miller, W., U.S Environmental Protection Agency. Presentation on Practical Quantitation Limit for Arsenic Before June 1999 Arsenic Stakeholders Meeting. (1999)

Mushak P. Mammalian biotransformation processes involving various toxic metalloids and metals. In: Chemical Toxicology and Clinical Chemistry of Metals, (S.S. Brown and J. Savory, Eds.), Academic Press, London, 1983, pp. 227-245.

Mushak P. Persisting scientific issues: Arsenic and human health. In: Arsenic Exposure and Health, (W.R. Chappell, C.O. Abernathy, C.R. Cothern, eds.), Science and Technology Letters, Proceedings of the International Conference on Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects: New Orleans, LA, July 28-30, 1993, (publ. 1994) 305-318.

Mushak P, Crocetti AF. Risk and revisionism in arsenic cancer risk assessment. Environ. Health Perspect. 103: 684-689, 1995.

Smith AH, Hopenhayn-Rich C, Bates MN, Gaeden HM, Hertz-Picciotto I, Duggan HM, Wood R, Kosnett NJ, Smith MT. Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water. Environ. Health Perspect. 97:259-267 (1992).

Kuttrio P, Pukkala E., Kahelin, H., Auvinen, A., Pekkanen., J. Arsenic Concentrations in Well Water and Risk of Bladder and Kidney Cancer in Finland. Environ. Health Perspect. 107:705-710 (1999)

Smith AH et al. Marked increase in bladder and lung cancer mortality in a region of Northern Chile due to arsenic in drinking water. Am. J. Epidemiol., 147:660-669 (1998).

Taft, J., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Analysis of Arsenic Control Levels Using Existing Information." (1998)

Tondel M, Rahman M, Magnuson A, Chowdhury IA, Faruquee, Ahmad SA. The relationship of arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence rate of skin lesions in Bangladesh. Environ. Health Perspect. 107: 727-729 (1999).

Tseng WP, Chu HM, How SW, Fong JM, Lin CS, Yeh S. Prevalence of skin cancer in an endemic area of chronic arsenism in Taiwan. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 40:453-463 (1968).

Tseng WP. Effects and dose-response relationships of skin cancer and Blackfoot Disease with arsenic. Environ. Health Perspect. 19:109-119 (1977).

Uthus EO. 1992. Evidence for arsenic essentiality. Environ. Geochem. Health 14: 55-58.

Vahter M. Environmental and occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 59:31-34 (1986).

Warner ML, Moore LE, Smith MT, Kalman DA, Fanning E, Smith AH. Increased micronuclei in exfoliated bladder cells of individuals who chronically ingest arsenic-contaminated water in Nevada. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 3:583-590 (1994).

Yamauchi H, Takahashi, K, Mashiko M, Yamamura Y. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 50:606-612 (1989).

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