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Individual Recommendations
J. Frederick Grassle
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POLYGON FG1 (including Hudson Canyon)

Rationale: physical features; biodiversity
Seasons and depths important for protection: year-round; benthic

This polygon extends from the 1,000-meter isobath out to the 200-nautical-mile limit. The deeper, farther offshore waters encompassing Hudson Canyon are internationally known for their high biodiversity of benthic invertebrates. Having been well studied, this area provides a reference for determining changes in the composition of life on the deep-sea floor.


POLYGON FG6 (including Lydonia Canyon and Bear SeaMount)

Rationale: physical features; biodiversity
Seasons and depths important for protection: year-round; benthic

A companion to polygon FG1, also from the 1,000-meter isobath, this area may be used as a northerly reference area for the study of invertebrate biodiversity in the deep-sea, abyssal region.


POLYGONS FG2–5

Rationale: high abundance; physical features; highly productive sand communities in a high-energy environment
Seasons and depths important for protection: year-round; pelagic

Upwelling in these four areas (when deeper seawater rises) distributes inverte-brate larvae and is associated with high productivity. Because of the high productivity and rapid growth of large bivalves, these areas may be considered valuable spawning areas. From an ecological standpoint, protection should be extended from the coast out about 8 miles. The maximum ocean depth varies from 20 meters to near 40 meters in these areas.


REFERENCES

for FG1 and FG6
Blake, J.A., B. Hecker, J.F. Grassle, B. Brown, M. Wade, P.D. Goehm, E. Baptiste, B. Hilbig, N. Maciolek, R. Petrecca, R.E. Ruff, V. Starczak, and L. Watling. 1987. Study of Bio-logical Processes on the U.S. South Atlantic Slope and Rise: Phase 2. Final Report prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Washington, DC.

Grassle, J.F., 1991. Deep-Sea Benthic Biodiversity. BioScience 41: 464–68.

Grassle, J.F., 1995. Deep-Ocean Biodiversity. UNESCO International Marine Science Newsletter, no. 75–76, 2nd semester.

Grassle, J.F., and N.J. Maciolek. 1992. Deep-Sea Species Richness: Regional and Local Diversity Estimates from Quantitative Bottom Samples. American Naturalist, 139: 323–41.

Grassle, J.F., N.J. Maciolek, and J.A. Blake. 1990. Are Deep-Sea Communities Resilient? In G.M. Woodwell, ed. The Earth in Transition (New York: Cambridge University Press), pp. 385–93.

Hessler, R.R., and H.L. Sanders. 1967. Faunal Diversity in the Deep Sea. Deep-Sea Res. 14: 65–78.

Maciolek, N.J., J.F. Grassle, B. Hecker, P.D. Boehm, B. Brown, B. Dade, W.G. Steinhauer, E. Baptiste, R.E. Ruff, and R. Petrecca. 1987a. Study of Bio-logical Processes on the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Slope and Rise. Final Report prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Washington, DC.

Maciolek, N.J., J.F. Grassle, B. Hecker, B. Brown, J.A. Blake, P.D. Boehm, R. Petrecca, S. Duffy, E. Baptiste, and R.E. Ruff. 1987b. Study of Biological Processes on the U.S. North Atlantic Slope and Rise. Final Report prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Washington, DC.

for FG2–5
Boesch, D.F., J.N. Kraeuter, D.K. Serafy. 1977. Distribution and Structure of Communities of Macrobenthos on the Outer Continental Shelf of the Middle Atlantic Bight: 1975–1976 Investigations. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Special Report in Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering, no. 175.

Glenn, S.M., M.F. Crowley, D.B. Haidvogel, and Y.T. Song. Underwater Observatory Captures Coastal Upwelling Events off New Jersey. Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union 77 (25): 233–36.

Pearce, J.B., J.V. Caracciolo, M.B. Halsey, and L.H. Rogers. 1976. Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in the New York Bight. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Special Symposium 2: 394–403.

Reid, R.N., D.J. Radosh, A.B. Frame, and S.A. Fromm. December 1991. Benthic Macrofauna of the New York Bight, 1979–89. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA Technical Report NMFS 103.

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