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Preventing Industrial Pollution at its Source
A Final Report of the Michigan Source Reduction Initiative


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Tables and Figures

Tables
Table 1: Public Reporting of Dow Midland, Michigan 1996 TRI Wastes and Releases
Table 2: Comparison of Dow Midland, Michigan Wastes and Releases to State and National Totals
Table 3: MSRI Reductions
Table 4: Individual MSRI Projects: Reductions, Costs, and Savings
Table 5: MSRI Projects Still in Design and Construction
Table 6: MSRI Projects in Development
Table 7: Additional Reductions at Midland Using Pollution Prevention
Table 8: Additional Reductions at Midland that Did Not Rely on Pollution Prevention
Table 9: MSRI Goals and Deadlines
Table 10: Baseline Comparison of MSRI to Publicly Reported Data
Table 11: Dow Chemical Global 10-year Reduction Goals
Table 12: Indicators of Institutional Change

Figures
Figure 1: MSRI Definition of Pollution Prevention
Figure 2: Pollution Prevention Techniques



Table 1: Public Reporting of Dow Midland, Michigan 1996 TRI Wastes and Releases

ChemicalTotal WasteTotal ReleaseFugitive AirStack AirSurface Water
Acetonitrile280,5871,6081,2203835
Acrylamide35,7451,15541138706
Acrylic Acid21,7533,0081,8741,1340
Acrylonitrile242,69928,63721,1507,47116
Allyl Alcohol76976876800
Ammonia595,37013,59510,3333,0370
Antimony Compounds16916401480
Benzene230,2257,6811,5576,1177
Biphenyl570,5755991324661
Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether00000
Bromine468468421470
1,3-Butadiene277,22315,41914,3571,0620
1,2-Butylene Oxide536530476540
Certain Glycol Ethers209,6251,5451,10929407
Chlorine154,41548,94523,16725,7780
Chloroacetic Acid598,6163120
Chlorobenzene320,3435,6733,5342,10039
Chlorodifluoromethane9,4728,7448,74400
Chloroethane208,202204,72114,987189,7340
Chloroform83,3722,6772,118338221
Chloromethane1,529,3959,9636,1693,7940
Chloromethyl Methyl Ether19719719700
Chlorophenols7,930236413
Chloropicrin180776890
Chloroprene34,95897297200
Chromium Compounds12,29412,2940320
Copper Compounds15,99015,7190140
Cumene26,0865231180
Cyclohexane178,16820612050
2,4-D26,5531,61311775827
2,4-D Sodium Salt3,9560000
Decabromodiphenyl Oxide46237603760
1,2-Dichloroethane7,0314,0923,7623300
Dichloromethane761,74023,39021,7361,514140
2,4-Dichlorophenol420,8442817015853
1,3-Dichloropropylene884382336460
Dimethylamine207,9761,1777674100
Dinitrobutyl Phenol278,9303,8323203,800
Ethylbenzene891,90622,49617,7214,7750
Ethylene258,664258,6640258,6640
Ethylene Glycol279,7333,6763,665110
Ethylene Oxide5,3864,2513,3429090
Formaldehyde1,370,11347,16544,76902,396
Formic Acid6,76660460400
Hydrochloric Acid1,402,82054,03117,44736,5840
4,4’-Isopropylidenediphenol6051010
Methacrylonitrile1,44894594320
Methanol7,496,64361,78141,95415,6164,211
Methoxone472110
2-Methoxyethanol1,3081,0674915760
Methyl Acrylate46,2228047212459
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone14,762221660
Methyl Methacrylate8,1901,0239495123
Naphthalene123,925157208747
N-Butyl Alcohol15,1681,6199206990
Phenol411,4331,4091641,19649
2-Phenylphenol705,1151,586451,5401
Phosgene406,954140140
Phosphoric Acid32,9370000
Picloram1,4662110
Propylene Oxide51,16211,1096,6584,4510
Sec-Butyl Alcohol80,68810910
Styrene1,492,945186,10933,402139,9090
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane284,80490128990
Tetrachloroethylene1,453,16239,30635,3993,82285
Toluene2,472,984353,90045,465308,4350
Trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-Butene13713713700
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol1,021,24231913615528
Triethylamine60,9311,2881,1281600
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene2,0594952752200
Vinyl Chloride296,01811,35011,288620
Vinylidene Chloride612,90720,65416,1654,339150
Xylene (Mixed Isomers)1,462,8091,9855601,39530
Zinc Compounds13,94713,94726250
Total30,141,1441,523,415424,9401,030,25313,314
(Chemicals in bold are MSRI Priority Chemicals)



Table 2: Comparison of Dow Midland, Michigan Wastes and Releases to State and National Totals

ChemicalMichiganNational
WasteReleaseWasteRelease
%Rank%Rank%Rank%Rank
24D100.0%1 of 1100.0%1 of 123.0%2 of 2716.0%2 of 27
Acrylonitrile16.0%2 of 298.0%1 of 23.5%30 of 1053.2%17 of 105
Butadiene99.9%1 of 399.9%1 of 30.3%39 of 1840.8%25 of 184
Chlorine69.0%1 of 3748.0%1 of 370.4%26 of 1,3550.5%39 of 1,355
Chloroethane59.0%1 of 281.0%1 of 20.2%23 of 533.5%10 of 53
Chloromethane90.0%1 of 715.0%3 of 75.0%4 of 1090.3%52 of 109
Dichlorophenol 2,4100.0%1 of 1100.0%1 of 194.0%1 of 312.0%2 of 3
Ethylbenzene6.0%4 of 502.0%14 of 500.5%42 of 1,0070.2%107 of 1,007
Formaldehyde57.0%1 of 3424.0%1 of 340.7%17 of 790
5 of 790
Methylene Chloride2.0%5 of 341.4%6 of 340.2%93 of 9630.0%420 of 963
Phosgene94.0%1 of 23.1%2 of 22.8%10 of 280.1%10 of 28
Styrene35.0%1 of 519.0%4 of 511.2%15 of 1,4890.5%49 of 1,489
Tetrachloroethane1112100.0%1 of 1100.0%1 of 13.9%4 of 813.0%3 of 8
Tetrachloroethylene87.0%1 of 1156.0%1 of 110.7%17 of 4280.4%62 of 428
Toluene1.2%8 of 1696.2%3 of 1690.1%137 of 3,3650.3%50 of 3,365
Trichlorophenol 2,4,6100.0%1 of 1100.0%1 of 1100.0%1 of 1100.0%1 of 1
Vinyl Chloride100.0%1 of 1100.0%1 of 10.2%24 of 480.9%26 of 48
Vinylidene Chloride100.0%1 of 1100.0%1 of 17.0%4 of 2311.0%3 of 23



Table 3: MSRI Reductions

Priority ChemicalBaseline*Funded ReductionsImplemented
WasteReleaseWasteReleaseWasteRelease
24D25,1671,054



Acrylonitrile231,45817,39200

Aliphatic Process Tar, BCl-1769,7760500,00000
Butadiene275,38913,58343,893043,8930
Chlorine32,58531,1169,8429,8429,8429,842
Chloroethane210,460210,460114,000114,000114,000114,000
Chloromethane1,487,6579,253799,000798410,000
Chromium10,94810,9481,3001,3001,3001,300
Cyclic process tar, BCl-21,278,5000



Dichloroethane (1,2)11,6044,1663,000
3,000
Dichlorophenol (2,4)267,960281



Ethylbenzene1,488,96636,909364,8000364,800
Finished Product BCl-1355,8951,32810,000
0
Finished Product BCl-4739,350566319,000
319,000
Formaldehyde1,387,65766,6531,300,00063,621700,00033,324
HCl-priority1,392,04335,862487,7407,7407,7407,740
Intermediate BCl-4128,038031,000
31,000
Methylene Chloride489,17018,608283,350339273,3500
Phosgene406,95414156,000
0
Styrene2,134,370110,922663,55412,478663,55412,478
Tetrachloroethane (1,1,1,2)284,807901120,000
0
Tetrachloroethylene1,466,09921,239984,000
984,0000
Toluene683,020423,178243,000243,000243,000243,000
Trichlorophenol (246)1,021,222319



Vinyl Chloride296,02111,3500
0
Vinylidene Chloride605,29520,65082,000
34,000
TOTAL17,480,4111,046,7526,515,479453,1184,202,479421,684
Percent Reduction37%43%
*Differences between baseline MSRI figures and publicly reported TRI are described in Table 10.



Table 4: Individual MSRI Projects: Reductions, Costs, and Savings


BaselineReductionsCapital CostSavings (per year)
ProcessProjectChemicalWasteReleaseWasteRelease
MethocelNONEChloromethane624,5352,47300

Chlorine2,0202,02000

Ion ExchangeReduce solvent in polymerChloromethane819,118818799,000798$330,000$3,300,000
Change catalyst use in reactionFormaldehyde1,361,84666,6481,300,00063,621
Change reaction conditions Chlorine2,9382,9382,8662,866
Change operation of raw material recovery systemHCl82,3056,7556,3456,345
SBLatexModified recovery techniques (Segregate 1st pass)Styrene593,0111,411207,5540$50,000$105,000
Butadiene125,40910,75843,8930
Ethylbenzene119,387000
Acrylonitrile6,2826,24200
PharmaIn-process recyclingMethylene Chloride424,372759273,3500$140,000$450,000
Chloromethane23,44774700
DursbanRecover/Reuse Product Reject RecycleFinished Product at BCl-4739,350566319,0000$20,000$57,000
Several Small process changesIntermediate at BCl-4128,038031,0000NA$80,000
Changes to reactors (Guard filters)Methylene Chloride5,846000$23,000$20,000
HCl priority2,5341,60200
24DBreak emulsion and in-process recycleTetrachloroethylene1,484,00039,185984,0000$140,000$525,700
HCl-priority33,0915,89800
Chlorine32832800
Methylene Chloride9,2899,28900
24D4,678000
ChlorophenolsNONEDichlorophenol 2,4267,96011700

Trichlorophenol 2,4,61,011,8832800
Cyclic Tar BCl-21,278,500
00
CACImproved cooling with refrigerationAliphatic Tar BCl-1796,776
500,0000$300,000$475,000
Chlorine1628100
Finished Product BCl-1355,8951,32810,0000
HCl-priority1,245,1751,201480,0000
Phosgene406,95111156,0000
Vinylidene Chloride129,0164,10148,0000
Tetrachloroethane1112281,353335120,0000
ETHOCELRefrigerated condenser (ER3)Toluene462,120415,237243,000243,000$1,300,000$54,000
Steam recoveryChloroethane208,586208,586114,000114,000$485,000
SARANVapor balance procedures, modified transfer and loadingVinylidene Chloride600,52412,36134,0000$0$13,000
Vinyl Chloride379,4158,53000
Acrylonitrile1,3171,07900
Chlorine8932900
HCl-priority1,44972800
HIPSSwitch to concentrated initiatorStyrene823,4313,702456,0000$300,000$270,000
Ethylbenzene662,9432,892364,8000
Mass ABSEliminate Methylene chloride for cleaningMethylene Chloride10,00033910,000339$1,000$1,000
Acrylonitrile25,2022,67700
Styrene163,6547,35600
Ethylbenzene274,8482,30900
Specialty ChemSeveral miscellaneous changes and reduced inhibitorDichloroethane (1,2)11,6044,1663,0000NANA
Chromium10,94810,9481,3001,300
Styrene


12,478
Incinerator*Reduced incinerator release from reduced chlorinated wastesChlorine

6,9766,976

HCl

1,3951,395
TOTAL6,515,479453,118$3,089,000$5,350,700
*These reductions are the secondary impact from reductions in chlorinated wastes burned and are not counted as a separate reduction project.



Table 5: MSRI Projects Still in Design and Construction

ProcessActionsCompletion DateChemicalsWaste ReductionsRelease Reductions
Ion ExchangeCatalyst change, process change and recycle raw materials from evaporatorDecember 1999Formaldehyde600,00030,300
Chloromethane389,000798
CACInstall refrigeration equipmentApril 2000Aliphatic Tar BCl-1500,000
Finished Product BCl-110,000
HCl-priority480,000
Phosgene156,000
Vinylidene Chloride48,000
Tetrachloroethane1112120,000
EngPlasImplement new cleaning technologyDecember 1999Methylene Chloride10,000339
TOTAL2,313,00031,437



Table 6: MSRI Projects in Development

ProcessActionsChemicalsWaste ReductionsRelease Reductions
Specialty ChemicalIn-process Recycle Chromium with ResinChromium8,5008,500
CACUse HCl absorberHCl800,000
MethocelMake high waste/unit products in La.Chloromethane600,000
SB LatexNegotiate cold load agreement with suppliers Styrene300,000
Butadiene60,000
DursbanRecover crude product from waste through distillation & filtrationFinished Product at BCl-4100,000
ChlorophenolsImprove recovery of 24DCP, 50%Dichlorophenol 2,4210,000
Improve selectivity of reaction to 24DCP, 40%Trichlorophenol 2,4,6404,000
Cyclic Tar BCl-2511,000
24DAdditional in-process recyclingTetrachloroethylene148,000
Mag drive pumpsMethylene Chloride9,0009,000
24D PackagingFlaker control software change24D15,000
ETHOCELOptimize Recover SystemsToluene100,000100,000
SARANPressure Swing Adsorption Vinyl Chloride270,000
HIPSImprove water separation in waste tanksStyrene30,000
Ethylbenzene30,000
EngPlasSwitch to liquid initiatorAcrylonitrile100,000
Styrene100,000
Ethylbenzene235,00010,000
TOTAL4,030,500127,500



Table 7: Additional Reductions at Midland Using Pollution Prevention

MSRI ChemicalsBaselineReduction
WasteReleaseWasteRelease
17,480,4111,046,7526,515,479453,118
NON MSRI Chemicals
Carbon Monoxide

237,000
Oxalyl Chloride

5,900
CO2

129,000
Oxygen

117,000
Methylal

896,000896,000
Methanol

1,400,00014,000
Catalyst

1,060,000
Amine

200,000
Diethyl ether

47,00047,000
Ethanol

22,00022,000
NON MSRI Chemicals58,100,0001,300,0004,113,900979,000
Total75,580,4112,346,75210,629,3791,432,118



Table 8: Additional Reductions at Midland That Did Not Rely on Pollution Prevention

ChemicalTreatmentOut of Process Recycling
Chloroethane28,000
Toluene2,000
EB/Styrene9,000
Chloromethane
600,000
TOTAL39,000600,000



Table 9: MSRI Goals and Deadlines


Goals
Quantitative Goals To have capital approved by April 30, 1999 that will achieve the following total waste and emissions of MSRI priority chemicals using pollution prevention:
  • at least 35% reduction in the total amount of air and water emissions from Michigan Operations and;
  • at least 35% reduction in waste generated prior to treatment.
  • Qualitative/Institutional Goals To foster institutional changes throughout Dow which will:
  • further shift the corporation's thinking from compliance to pollution prevention;
  • further integrate health and environmental concerns into core business planning and decision making.

    To develop and rely upon a participatory process that leads to changes in business decision making throughout Dow and that provides an opportunity for the citizen participants to gain an understanding of the company's business decision making process

    To monitor waste reduction and pollution prevention accomplishments and provide accountability of the project results to the general public


  • Table 10: Baseline Comparison of MSRI to Publicly Reported Data*

    ChemicalMSRI Baseline for 1996Original Public TRI for 1996Description of Changes
    WasteReleaseWasteRelease
    24D25,1671,05426,5531,613Refinement of estimation techniques
    Acrylonitrile231,45817,392242,69928,637Fugitives reduced by using bagging method instead of SOCMI factors and light liquid factors instead of heavy.
    Butadiene275,38913,583277,22315,419Fugitives reduced: Plant method change
    Chlorine32,58531,116154,41548,945No Chlorine to WWTP (was actually hypochlorite)
    Chloroethane210,460210,460208,202204,721Fugitives reduced, number of devices incorrect
    Chloromethane1,487,6579,2531,529,3959,963Incorrect fugitive factor. R&D releases in MSRI not in TRI. WWTP input from off-site plant.
    Chromium10,94810,94812,29412,294Other company’s waste. Double counted waste to WWTP
    Dichloroethane (1,2)11,6044,1667,0314,092Correction to match otherwise use total
    Dichlorophenol (2,4)267,960281420,844281Updated, waste characterization based on sampling
    Ethylbenzene1,488,96636,909891,90622,496Purge stream considered waste in MSRI. Vent estimate increased by correction of reporting error. Fugitive based on bagging instead of SOCMI.
    Formaldehyde1,387,65766,6531,370,11347,165Secondary air releases from WWTP based on improved model.
    HCl-priority1,392,04335,8621,402,82054,031Transcription error. Fugitive incorrect device count. MSRI counts liquid HCl burned.
    Methylene Chloride489,17013,203761,74023,390Fugitives based on revised # of devices and hours of operation. Secondary air releases from WWTP down based improved model.
    Phosgene406,95414406,95414No changes
    Styrene2,134,370110,9221,492,945186,109Fugitive change. Double counted polymer residuals. PBR reported for MSRI purposes as recycled off site. Water to WWTP reported as styrene
    Tetrachloroethane (1,1,1,2)284,807901284,804901No changes
    Tetrachloroethylene1,466,72721,8671,453,16239,306Incorrect device count for fugitives. Removed from energy recovery because less than 5,000 BTU/lb.
    Toluene683,020423,1782,472,984353,900Pilot plant shutdown. Ethocel vent release now determined by material balance. Other company's waste. Revision of WWTP inputs based on recent sampling
    Trichlorophenol (246)1,021,2223191,021,242319No substantial changes
    Vinyl Chloride296,02111,350296,01811,350No substantial changes
    Vinylidene Chloride605,29520,650612,90720,654New analysis of liquid waste. Not considered energy recovery because < 5,000 BTU/lb.
    TOTAL14,208,8521,044,85815,346,2511,085,600
    *Five MSRI priority waste streams were not required to be reported on TRI and therefore did not require modification. The quantities of these waste streams appear in Table 3.



    Table 11: Dow Chemical Global 10-year Reduction Goals

    Goal Quantity Chemicals
    Reduce dioxin emissions 90% Dioxins
    Further reduce air and water emissions 75% Priority compounds:
  • 2 persistent, bioaccumulative toxics (mercury and hexachlorobenzene)
  • 6 known carcinogens
  • 12 ozone depletors
  • 9 high volume toxics
  • 50% 625 compounds
    Reduce waste and waste water per pound of production 50% All chemicals except sodium chloride
    Reduce energy use per pound of production 20%



    Table 12: Indicators of Institutional Change

    AreaExample Questions
    Leadership/Goal Setting
    • Does your business have any environmental performance goals beyond compliance?
    • Are these goals quantitative?
    • Are these goals regularly communicated to employees in the business?
    • Does the business have a plan to reduce the use and production of persistent, bioaccumulative toxics (PBT’s)?
    Financial and Human Resources
    • Will your business increase the capital allocated for pollution prevention projects in 1999 compared to prior years?
    • Are there extra incentives for funding pollution prevention capital over projects that have no pollution prevention aspects?
    • Is there a business commitment to provide staffing for pollution prevention projects?
    • Is staffing for scoping pollution prevention projects included in the long-term business planning?
    • Has a full cost accounting been done in your business?
    Employee/Management Incentives
    • Do pollution prevention innovators get recognized in performance evaluations?
    • Are business or corporate environmental goals discussed in performance evaluations?
    Community Input
    • Does the community have any input into the environmental goals for the business?
    • Does the business have any outside (beyond Dow) review of/feedback on product risk issues?
    Product Issues
    • Does the business rate products according to pollution generated in addition to profitability?
    • Does the business do a lifecycle analysis of each of its products?
    • Does the business compare the lifecycle of its products with the lifecycle of substitutes to its products?
    • Are there more sustainable ways of providing the same function as the product that you produce, while meeting the same need?
    Information Needs
    • Has the business inventoried its chemicals for their ability to cause health effects other than cancer including disruptions to the immune hormone and reproductive systems?
    • Has the business inventoried its chemicals for their ability to harm ecosystems or the plants and animals in them?
    • Does the business identify data gaps in their knowledge of the chemicals they use and have a plan to address those gaps?



    Figure 1: MSRI Definition of Pollution Prevention

    Pollution prevention means in-plant changes in production processes or raw material that reduce, avoid, or eliminated the use of toxic or hazardous substances or generation of hazardous byproducts per unit of product, so as to reduce risks to the health of workers, consumers, or the environment, without shifting risks between workers, consumers or parts of the environment. Pollution prevention shall be achieved through any of the following techniques:

    1. Input substitution, which refers to replacing a toxic or hazardous substance or raw material used in a production unit with a non-toxic or less toxic substance;
    2. Product reformulation, which refers to substituting for an existing end-product an end product which is non-toxic or less toxic upon use, release, or disposal;
    3. Production unit redesign or modification, which refers to developing and using production units of a different design than those currently used;
    4. Production unit modernization, which refers to upgrading or replacing existing production unit equipment and methods with other equipment and methods, based on the same production unit;
    5. Improved operation and maintenance of production unit equipment and methods, which refers to modifying or adding to existing equipment or methods including, but not limited to, such techniques as improved housekeeping practices, system adjustments, product and process inspections or production unit control equipment or methods; or
    6. Recycling, reuse, or extended use of toxics by using equipment or methods which become an integral part of the production unit of concern, including, but not limited to, filtration and other closed loop methods.

    However, pollution prevention shall not include or in any way be inferred to promote or require incineration, transfer from one medium to other media, off-site or out-of-production unit waste recycling, or methods of end-of-pipe treatment of toxics as waste.



    Figure 2: MSRI Pollution Prevention Techniques

    Figure 2

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