Community Responses to Runoff Pollution
Top of Report
STRATEGIES IN THE NORTHERN ROCKIES AND PACIFIC SOUTHWEST
Implementing Pollution Prevention for Municipal Operations
Murray City, UT and Utah Department of Transportation | Reno, NV | Additional Examples
Addressing Stormwater in New Development and Redevelopment
Natural Drainage at "Village Homes"
Built in the late 1970s, the pioneering 69-acre Village Homes residential subdivision remains an outstanding example of stormwater-sensitive site design. Developers Michael and Judy Corbetts located the subdivision's 220 homes and 24 apartments on a series of fingerlike cul-de-sacs emanating from a local arterial road. Realizing the aesthetic and community benefits of streams, the Corbetts built a new surface drainage system and made it a focal point of the development.
Stormwater from backyards and rooftops in Village Homes drains into common areas running parallel to the streets behind the houses. These common areas contain vegetated swales and occasional percolation beds that infiltrate light and moderate rainfall. Front yards drain into the streets, which then drain into another set of swales. Water from larger storms that does not infiltrate in these preliminary swales drains into larger swales and ponds. Planted with rocks, bushes, trees, and other vegetation, the swales are essentially a constructed network of seasonal creeks. The swales form part of a larger open-space network including pedestrian/bike paths, a swimming pool and other recreational facilities, and agricultural areas where the Village Homes community grows fruit and nuts. All residents are members of a homeowner's association that manages the community. The association owns the greenbelts and other common areas in the community, making them open for all to use.
In addition to providing infiltration through the drainage system, the developers addressed the water-quantity problem by building residential streets only 20 or 24 feet wide. The narrow streets, along with 3-foot easements on either side, reduce impervious cover while discouraging speeding drivers, maintaining emergency access, and providing walking room.
So far, the drainage system exceeds the desired goal of infiltrating the entire volume of the 10-year storm without discharging water to the city's storm sewer system. When a 50-year storm hit in the mid-1980s, Village Homes not only infiltrated its own stormwater, but also water that overflowed from nearby conventional systems. Use of the surface drainage system saved $800 per lot in infrastructure costs over a traditional subsurface sewer system.
No water-quality monitoring data for Village Homes stormwater exists, in part, perhaps, because there is minimal runoff into local rivers or the city storm sewer system. Nonetheless, water quality appears better than average. The vegetated swales provide good filtration of pollutants. Residents routinely use the network of paths to walk or bike to jobs at the adjacent University of California campus or other destinations. Vehicle miles traveled per car in the development are 15 percent less than the average for that area, implying reduced water pollutant loadings from automobile emissions, parts wear, and leaking or spilled petroleum products.
Village Homes also incorporates innovative solar water and space heating, and natural cooling features. Unfortunately, the magnitude of the environmental innovation at Village Homes has made other developers reluctant to follow the Corbetts lead. Yet financial data demonstrates the economic success of Village Homes: The partners in development earned a 23 percent annual return on their investment. Homes sold quickly at the time of construction and still sell in half as much time as homes in other nearby developments. On average, homes now sell for $11 per square foot more than others nearby.
Inspired by the Village Homes development, the Bay Area Stormwater Management Agencies Association has developed a design manual and set of guidances for open-channel stormwater management systems that use natural landscape features and functions. Several smaller developments in the Bay area have used Village Homes as a model, incorporating some of the stormwater management elements.
Contact: Judy Corbett, Executive Director, Local Government Commission, CA, 916-448-1198 ext.318, email: email@example.com .
Demonstration Treatment Marsh
A joint venture between the Alameda County Flood Control District, the Association of Bay Area Governments, and East Bay Regional Parks has achieved impressive environmental results with its Demonstration Urban Stormwater Treatment (DUST) constructed wetland in Fremont, California.
Built in the early 1980s as part of the Alameda County Urban Runoff Clean Water Program, the DUST system is located in and adjacent to the Coyote Hills Regional Park just to the east of southern San Francisco Bay. Alameda County Flood Control District provided the land for the marsh. The first part of the system is an approximately 2.2-mile-long vegetated section of the channel of Crandall Creek. Stormwater from a 4.6-square-mile drainage area enters the creek at various point along this section. The stormwater then flows into the wetland proper, which consists of a small basin to retain debris followed by three distinct wetland areas covering 55 acres. The pond area is only 1.1 percent of the watershed. While this is lower than the recommended 2 percent, structural modification of the system, including raising the height of an inflow and the installation of a floating log baffle, altered the flow of stormwater through the system to improve performance. The orientation of the marsh to the prevailing winds is also important in terms of mixing, which helps facilitate removal of some constituents.
As the facility's name indicates, Alameda County built the DUST system to evaluate the effectiveness of constructed wetlands as a stormwater quality-control measure. Since completion of the marsh system in 1983, monitoring has indicated success along a number of environmental axis. Researchers found that the number and abundance of aquatic animal species increased in the downstream part of the mash, indicating an improvement in water quality. The vegetated creek bed has been particularly effective at removing pollutants. In one study, investigators found that the vegetated creek bed reduced concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc to background levels within 625 feet of the point where the stormwater entered the creek. In general, there is a pollutant reduction gradient moving downstream from the outfall. Researchers note that the vegetation and hydrology of the creek are very important to achieving these removal efficiencies.
Subsequent research relied on biological testing to measure water quality in the system. The tiny crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia is a very sensitive indicator of toxicity. While amounts of contaminants toxic to the C. dubia are not necessarily toxic to humans or other animal life, they do reduce or eliminate populations of insects that serve as food for other life forms, reducing the total amount and diversity of life in the waterbody. As the measure of toxicity, researchers used the amount of time necessary to kill half the population of C. dubia residing in the water being tested.
Prior to the installation of the floating log baffle mentioned above, incoming stormwater flows tended to float over water resident in the system, so that these flows left the marsh system quickly, before pollutant removal processes could operate. The investigators measured high to moderate levels of toxicity due to the common insecticide Diazinon in the water entering the marsh. But the installation of the log baffle forced the incoming stormwater to stay in the marsh long enough to remove the toxin. With one slight exception, samples of water leaving the marsh were no longer toxic.
Researchers evaluating the DUST Marsh have found it to be an effective means of treating urban runoff. Their evidence supports other research suggesting that wetland systems are one of the most effective management measures for treating stormwater. Monitoring conducted 10 years after construction of the system revealed that marsh sediments contain relatively low concentrations of stormwater parameters; marsh biota contain varying amounts depending on species. While enrichment of some parameters has been noted in the creek and marsh, researchers have found no evidence to suggest that the system is becoming a toxic "hot spot" as a result of an accumulation of pollutants. Studies so far indicate that concentrations have either plateaued or are decreasing.
Contact: Richard Wetzig, Alameda Countywide Clean Water Program, CA, 510-670-5702, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Regional Infiltration Basins
Approximately a half million people live in the dry, flat area served by the Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District. The area faces a number of water problems. The average annual rainfall of 11 inches falls during a six-month period during the winter. Thus the stormwater flows are greatest during the winter, intensifying the stormwater management problem. During the rest of the year, only a small amount of rain falls, leaving little water to infiltrate into the aquifer from which Fresno draws its drinking water. In addition, groundwater within the district's service area has been regionally affected by DBCP, a banned nematocide, and locally by other contaminants.
The district addresses these related problems by means of an infiltration system, and currently operates some 130 infiltration basins in its jurisdiction of approximately 400 square miles. Each basin serves a drainage area of 1 to 2 square miles. The basins vary in design with some turfed and used as parks. Others remain unturfed, and are used for dry season groundwater recharge.
In the aggregate, these basins infiltrate over 6,822 acre feet of stormwater each year, so that only 10 percent of the total runoff is released to rivers and streams. Of all urban stormwater runoff, only 2 percent reaches a receiving water without first undergoing some degree of detention treatment. Based on ongoing monitoring, the district's infiltration facilities are known to entrap large amounts of the following contaminants:
- Biological oxygen-demanding substances
- Chemical oxygen-demanding substances
- Suspended solids
The basins solve other water problems as well. The combination of a dry climate and urban imperviousness in the surrounding areas of the fertile Central Valley reduce the amount of groundwater available to the Fresno municipal area. To counteract this problem, the district augments local stormwater flows into the unturfed basins with over 11,164 acre feet of high-quality imported surface water from the nearby Kings and San Joaquin rivers.
The district's storm infiltration system design proves to be very cost effective compared with traditional storm sewer systems, which would be prohibitively expensive given the flatness of the area served by the district, and the distance to a receiving water. Current capital costs for the district's stormwater system total approximately $4,000 to $6,000 per acre for residential development. Services for commercial and industrial sites are more expensive due to the higher volume of stormwater generated.
In addition to the water quality and quantity benefits, the basins provide recreational benefits in the form of athletic fields on the turfed basins, and habitat for aquatic birds and vegetation. On the whole, infiltration has provided a sound solution for the water-related problems faced by residents of the Fresno metropolitan area, effecting an economical system of regional stormwater facilities that also enhance water quality, recreation, and water conservation.
Contact: Doug Harrison, General Manager, Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District, CA, 559-456-3292, email: email@example.com. Melinda Marks, Environmental Resources Manager, Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District, CA, 559-456-3292, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
"The Crossing" Transportation-Oriented Development
Mountain View sits at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay in Santa Clara County, a few miles northwest of San Jose. Its inhabitants have used the 16-acre site that now contains "The Crossings," a mixed-use development, in a number of ways over the past century: as farmland, for industrial purposes, and then, beginning in the 1960s, as a typical suburban shopping mall.
In the early 1990s, however, the mall failed financially, and the city saw this as an opportunity to remake the site as a transportation-oriented development. Knowing that the California Department of Transportation planned to build a commuter rail station immediately adjacent to the site, the city believed that a higher density, largely residential mixed-use development was essential to making the station a success.
With input from local citizens, the developer (TPG Development) and the planner (Calthorpe & Associates) agreed on a final design for the site and razed about three quarters of it, including the shopping mall itself and much of the parking space around it. A roughly rectangular grid of 28-foot-wide streets replaced them. Approximately 97 single-family homes, 100 row houses, and 30 townhouses line the streets on half of the development, while buildings containing nearly 150 apartment units, community and day-care centers, and some small retail establishments will occupy the remaining half. The redeveloped space also provides three local parks that resemble classic "village greens," one of which will contain a community center and a pool. The last phase of construction, due for completion in the spring of 1999, will add additional apartments and, at the far end of the site, two tiers of parking under the apartment buildings serving both residents and commuters.
The section of the site not redeveloped contains a supermarket and a small office complex. The compact scale of the development means that all of the above-mentioned features are within a short walk from any resident's home. The ability to engage in daily tasks and recreation without driving is not only convenient and relaxing, but also lowers contributions to runoff pollution by reducing automobile travel. One study by the Santa Clara Valley Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Program, of which the city of Mountain View is a member, estimated that cars and other vehicles contribute 75 percent of the total copper load to the lower San Francisco Bay through runoff.
Ironically, the principal motivation for the use of this style of development -- the commuter rail station -- has not yet been built, although CalTrain currently expects that to occur in 1999. Once that happens, residents from the development will also be able to walk to a commuter line that will take them as far north as San Francisco and as far south as Gilroy. Unfortunately, the developer did not incorporate any best management practices for water quality control on the site. Nonetheless, the reduction in pollutant loadings due to less automobile travel helps keep runoff cleaner.
Prior to redevelopment, the site was 98 percent impervious. With redevelopment, over 45 percent of the site is now more pervious landscaped cover, in the form of parks and yards. The elimination of a large portion of imperviousness at this site through somewhat narrow roadways and the creation of vegetated areas, in addition to building housing, retail, and other useful facilities without creating new impervious cover, will probably help prevent stormwater quantity problems in the San Francisco Bay watershed. So far, monitoring of local streams has been inconclusive. Furthermore, ecological benefits may be limited since the site drains to a engineered concrete creek.
The project has been quite successful financially. It helped that the developer was able to obtain the land on good terms by renegotiating the debt of the previous owners, but the developer believes this type of project would have been successful under other circumstances.
Contact: Joseph Scanga, Principal, Calthorpe Associates, CA, 510-548-6800, email: email@example.com.
A Model Parking Lot
Stormwater management has a different focus in arid regions, where storm events occur infrequently and for only a short period each year. In the case of the new visitor center at Needles in Canyonlands National Park, the National Park Service constructed their parking lot with this fact in mind.
Considering the climatic setting, designers had three objectives in mind: collect stormwater runoff, prevent erosion, and enhance aesthetics. To accomplish this, the parking lot at the Needles visitor center was designed with interrupted curbs that allow water to flow evenly to vegetated areas. This relatively simple and inexpensive approach allows all three goals to be met.
By providing many points of discharge from the parking lot, the interrupted curb reduces gully erosion, a common problem in southern Utah and other arid locales that is often exacerbated by concentrating runoff from parking lots and other impervious surfaces at a few points of discharge. The dispersed flows also enable runoff to be captured in vegetated areas where it can slowly infiltrate into the ground. In capturing the runoff, the Park Service achieved its other goal, aesthetic quality.
Revegetation is somewhat of a tricky process in the desert Southwest. Not enough water and the plants die; too much water and unwanted exotic species take over. With this system, stormwater could be directed into revegetation areas, helping the new plants become established. The slower release of water helped maintain a high percentage of desirable green vegetation. Water was also harvested from roof drains to help with irrigation during drier periods.
The National Park Service also found that the intermittent curb design saves money over the standard curb and gutter approach both in reducing initial costs, and preventing future costs associated with correcting erosion problems.
Staff at the visitor center say that the system has been working well despite retaining too much water at times. They believe that the design helps prevent both water and wind erosion; no gullying has been observed and the vegetation helps keep soil in place. From an aesthetic standpoint, they are pleased as well. Researcher Jane Belnap believes that they would not have been able to pull off the revegetation without this design, and adds that by not paving the whole area benefits aesthetically. Belnap sees this approach as a good model for paved parking lots in the desert Southwest.
Contact: Paul Thomas, Senior Project Engineer, Wenk Associates, 303-628-0003, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jolly Giant Creek Daylighting and Outdoor Classroom, Arcata, California6
This seven year project began in 1991 as an environmental education project at the adjacent high school, but soon became a state-funded effort that included a pedestrian thoroughfare and passive recreation area. The project involved major restoration of the channel, floodplain, and riparian vegetation. It included removal of about 100 feet of culvert and installation of a sedimentation basin. The project team also added fish habitat and flow control structures, and connected the daylighted section to a historic natural channel downstream. The project has been a community and environmental success including improved water quality and aquatic biodiversity. The establishment of riparian and wetland vegetation increases nutrient and pollutant uptake. Improved channel geometry stabilizes flows and controls erosion. The project inspired Arcata to develop a new drainage master plan.
Contact: Ruth Blyther, Project Manager, Natural Resource Service Division, Redwood Community Action Agency, CA, 707-269-2066, email: email@example.com.
Promoting Public Education and Participation
Multi-Agency Advertising Campaigns
The Alameda Countywide Clean Water Program (ACCWP) has shown that public advertising can increase awareness of runoff pollution and can help change behavior. Alameda County stretches along the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay and includes the city of Oakland as well as a number of medium and smaller cities and developing suburban areas. Seventeen municipal agencies and districts within the county joined together to form the ACCWP to apply for the Phase I stormwater permit and administer the requirements of that permit, which was first issued in 1991.
As part of those requirements, the county has made a number of efforts to increase public awareness of runoff pollution problems and to inform individuals about what they can do personally to reduce these problem. Municipalities have stenciled storm drains with messages letting people know that the drains lead directly to creeks or the bay itself; some communities are now using thermoplastic material rather than paint for this purpose to increase the longevity of the stencil. Radio announcements, banners on the sides of buses, inserts in utility bills, handouts and flyers, and public appearances by municipal agency staff at local fairs and festivals are among the many techniques the ACCWP has used. However, local advocates feel that Alameda County should make the permit itself more user friendly and understandable in order to facilitate greater public involvement.
In addition to making an effort to get the message out to the public, the ACCWP has monitored responses to their efforts through telephone surveys. Three surveys, one done in 1992, one in February 1994, and one in July 1994, demonstrate an impressive improvement in public attitudes and behavior. Between the first two surveys, the ACCWP engaged in a number of public education activities, including newspaper advertisements, billboards, and storm drain stenciling. A comparison of the first two surveys show the results in table below.
The stencils proved to be the most recognized of the educational activities used before the second survey, although the analyst cautions that this may be a result of a lag between the billboard campaign and the second survey.
The third survey followed a four-month ad campaign on buses and billboards and in newspapers. The survey revealed a much greater number of respondents aware of the education programs: 70 percent, rather than 46. Nearly 70 percent of those aware of the campaign changed their behavior, which represents 48 percent of the total surveyed sample. Recognition of billboards as a source of information increased from 8 to 22 percent among those aware of the educational campaign, indicating particular effectiveness of this technique. While the respondents in these surveys may in some cases overstate their new convictions and changes in behavior, the significant increases indicate that at least on some level the message got through.
The ACCWP provides a cost-efficient way of transmitting the message. Rather than having each of the 17 separate member entities preparing their own educational materials, the ACCWP prepares the radio and print materials, resulting in lower costs per municipality and, in all likelihood, a higher quality product than any individual municipality might create. Additionally, the joint effort insures a common approach and method across the county, increasing the number of times that a resident of one city might hear the same message as she travels to other points within the county.
In fact, this coordination of effort has been duplicated on a regional level. In addition to the ACCWP, there are six other county-wide stormwater programs abutting the San Francisco Bay. These seven programs have banded together and formed the Bay Area Stormwater Management Agencies Association (BASMAA) to encourage consistency between the programs and to take advantage of efficiencies in program development across jurisdictional boundaries. BASMAA has itself run coordinated radio advertising campaigns in the Bay Area. According to Sharon Gosselin, watershed project manager for Alameda County's Clean Water Program, regional advertising efforts are a smart strategy, but she stresses that work still needs to be done at the local level to reinforce the messages.
BASMAA also used survey research to evaluate the effectiveness of the regional media campaign. The research found that both aided and unaided awareness of the advertisements increased significantly over baseline by 10 and 14 percent respectively. Awareness of message content and media source also increased significantly.
The advertising is expected to continue. Alameda County and BASMAA have secured funding for the program through the year 2000. Currently, they are trying to build media relations so that messages about reducing stormwater pollution become more integrated with regular programming.
|SURVEY RESULTS FOR ALAMEDA COUNTY ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN|
|Increase in respondents thinking pollutants enter watershed through runoff||9%|
|Increase in respondents thinking pollutants enter watershed through illegal dumping||36%|
|Respondents aware of programs to educate public about dumping in storm drains||46%|
|Respondents who changed behavior||70% |
(of those aware of campaign)
Contact: Sharon Gosselin, Watershed Project Manager, Alameda Countywide Clean Water Program, CA, 510-670-6547, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
"Urban Watch" Monitoring Program
The diversity of sea life and the quality of the marine environment makes Monterey Bay one of the most popular diving destinations in the United States and home to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. However, projected residential and light industrial growth rates have raised concern that increases in stormwater runoff will damage this delicate marine environment.
To protect this important resource, Monterey decided to take a preventative approach to stormwater management. While most of the urban runoff program is still in the planning phase, the city has initiated some important early steps. For example, the city has conducted an extensive inventory and inspection of their storm drain system.
Monterey recognized the importance of collecting background data and the value of engaging the public from the start. Working with the Sanctuary and the Coastal Watershed Council, Monterey developed the Urban Watch program, a stormwater monitoring program targeting both objectives. Modeled after a similar program in Fort Worth, Texas, Urban Watch uses citizens to monitor and study streams and stormwater outfalls in the Monterey Bay watershed. Twelve trained volunteers work together to monitor four priority stormwater outfalls that drain directly to Monterey Bay. Over the past year, the city added two additional mid-watershed sampling locations. Volunteers collect dry-weather water samples that are tested for stormwater parameters including detergents, phenols, ammonia-nitrogen, chlorine, turbidity, pH, water and air temperature, odor, and color. In addition, they note the presence of oily sheens, sewage, trash, or surface scum.
The Sanctuary and the Coastal Watershed Council designed and implemented Urban Watch, with Monterey providing financial resources. The program costs around $8,000 per year, which includes volunteer training, monitoring and analysis costs, data analysis and presentation, and program administration; initial equipment costs were $500. The Coastal Watershed Council estimates that volunteers have saved the city between $30,000 and $40,000.
Volunteers work on a 12-to-14 day schedule, collecting two samples from a site within a 24-hour period, with at least four hours between each sampling event. This results in approximately 10 samples collected from each site during the dry season monitoring period. Volunteers collected samples using a monitoring kit called "Urban Watch,"9 which is designed to detect illegal stormdrain connections and discharges.
To date, monitoring revealed detergents in 20 of 43 samples collected; at two sites, monitoring revealed detergents in all samples. In addition to detergents, volunteers frequently observed oily sheens, odors, trash, and surface scum at all sites. Program staff find monitoring data such as these are very helpful in identi- fying current sources of pollution as well as preventing future improper dis- charges. In this case, the high concentrations of detergents led volunteers to area restaurants. When restaurants wash floor mats and other kitchen apparatus outside, detergent and grease-laden water get discharged directly into the stormwater system. The partnership is using this information to design an efficient strategy for preventing these discharges in the future. Outreach efforts can now focus on a specific population (restaurant owners and staff) thereby getting the biggest preventative bang for the city's buck. Already, volunteers are working with members of the restaurant community asking them to complete a survey about stormwater and attend a presentation on stormwater issues and BMPs for restaurants. Program staff also provided restaurateurs with educational materials for future reference.
Project administrators found the Clean Stream Program to be a very effective public educational tool as well. While sampling, volunteers are often asked about their work by intrigued tourists and beach-goers. This provides an excellent opportunity to reach out and inform the public about urban runoff issues as well as solicit feedback on the developing urban runoff program. Building on the success of the first two years of monitoring, the partnership plans to increase the number of volunteers in Monterey, and expand monitoring efforts into the cities of Santa Cruz and Capitola.
Contact: Tamara Clinard, Watershed Program Coordinator, Coastal Watershed Council, CA, 831-426-9012, email: email@example.com
Idaho Stormwater Program, Idaho Division of Environmental Quality10
Idaho's stormwater program, which began in 1996, focuses primarily on providing support, education, and technical assistance to regional offices, communities, and watershed advisory groups throughout the state working on watershed water-quality plans. The program advocates a four-tier strategy: protection of critical resources, source control, source treatment, and local involvement and regulation. Guidance for both cost-effective watershed-wide planning and site-specific design, BMPs, and control measures is also provided. The state distributes reference materials widely and performs workshops and presentations regularly.
Contact: Todd Maguire, Water Quality Program Specialist, Idaho Division of Environmental Quality, 208-373-0502.
Biannual Mass-media Campaign, Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District, California11
The Flood Control District runs biannual television, radio, and print advertisements in both English and Spanish to educate the community about stormwater management. The most recent campaign cost $7.82 per thousand impressions for the target audience. This campaign achieved its threshold for recall and understanding for 84 percent of the target audience. A telephone survey revealed that 76 percent of respondents recalled seeing the television ads, 23 percent had unaided recall of messages discouraging dumping into storm drains, and 40 percent had unaided recall of proper waste disposal.
Contact: Melinda Marks, Environmental Resources Manager, Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District, CA, 559-456-3292, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Brake Pad Partnership, South San Francisco Bay Area, California12
The Brake Pad Partnership, which began in 1996, is an existing voluntary partnership of business, government, and environmental stakeholders working together collaboratively to examine the link between copper in brake pad wear debris and copper in surface waters nationwide, using South San Francisco Bay as a model. Brake pad wear debris is rubbed off during braking, and either falls on the road, sticks to the car, or is airborne. Studies in the San Francisco Bay area indicate that the overwhelming majority of copper pollution to the South Bay comes from stormwater runoff. Automotive brake pads have been identified as the primary source of copper (approximately 80 percent) in urban runoff. Local concerned stakeholders established a 25-member Brake Pad Work Group to consider the issue and determine what actions to take. As a result of this effort, industry representatives are proposing an collaborative research program to develop an ingredient evaluation tool.
Contact: Elizabeth O'Brien, Senior Project Manager, Sustainable Conservation, CA, 415-977-0380, email: email@example.com .
Curbside Used Oil Collection, Sunnyvale, California13
Since 1987, Sunnyvale has provided containers and collected used oil and other products during curbside recyclables collection. The city informs the public about the program through brochures and utility bill flyers. Sunnyvale notes a 40 percent increase in participation between 1987 and 1991.
Contact: Richard Guerny, Public Works Recycling Program, CA, 408-730-7277. Mark Bowers, Public Works Recycling Program, CA, 408-730-7277.
Pet Pollution Prevention Pledge, Los Angeles County, California14
Over 150 canines showed up at a Southern California pet store to put their paw print on a pledge to make sure their owners clean up their waste. The Los Angeles County Department of Public Works Environmental Programs Division developed a program to control pet waste after profiling various groups of residents to identify the best target for reducing coastal pollution. Dog owners rated high as concerned citizens likely to change their behavior. The program included a multimedia campaign to educate new and existing pet owners about the water-quality impacts of pet waste. The program also distributed cleanup kits to owners, and installed plastic bag dispensers in parks. The city established partnerships with local pet stores and pet supply companies to promote the program.
Contact: Stephen Groner, Environmental Programs Division, Los Angeles County Department of Public Works, CA, 626-458-4300.
Controlling Construction Site Runoff
Enforcing Erosion Regulations
The northern California climate and topography provide a clue to proper erosion control strategies for developers seeking to comply with water-quality protection requirements. The rainy season falls between October and mid-April, with the rest of the year fairly dry. Any land that is cleared and graded in the summer and early fall must be protected from erosion through revegetation or it will be eroded by the fall and winter rains. Local geography in the San Francisco Bay area makes erosion prevention measures even more important, since most residential developments tend to be on hillsides. The state water-quality agency in this region has worked with these challenging conditions to build an education and enforcement program that has brought compliance with erosion and sediment control requirements to 90 percent in 1998, up from 30 to 40 percent in the early 1990s, according to agency officials.
Staff at the Regional Water Quality Control Board state that up until about 1996, developers largely ignored state general construction permits and regulations. According to staff, they did not follow the dictates of climate and geography vis-à-vis erosion prevention and control, and many builders failed to stabilize their sites before the winter rains. Field surveys by board staff found that even when erosion prevention measures were taken, they were usually much too late to be effective. For example, developers and builders typically omitted erosion prevention techniques, and often installed sediment control measures such as sediment basins and silt fences improperly. Furthermore, field staff frequently found these measures poorly maintained. Control board officials recognized that a new direction in permit enforcement was in order and recognized the universal importance of erosion prevention regardless of site size. "Whether it's 1 acre, or 100 acres, makes no difference to us -- erosion prevention is essential, and less costly than other measures with comparable effectiveness" said board staffer Hossain Kazemi.
Board staff found several reasons for the poor compliance: lack of understanding of the state stormwater requirements on the part of the builders and local governments; builders' tendency to continue grading until winter rains and the resulting mud make further grading impossible; and a perception among some developers that it would be better for business to risk fines than to change current practices. Board officials then crafted a dual enforcement/education strategy that would address all of these problems and, they hoped, stem the flow of silt into the bay.
Education was the first step as board staff began initiating educational meetings with developers and local government officials during the dry season, in order to better prepare for the rainy season. The staff also produced an erosion control field manual that is easy to read and full of understandable color graphics. The board held workshops in conjunction with municipalities and local homebuilders association representatives and developers. Staff members refined the workshops in response to attendees' evaluations to emphasize BMP implementation techniques, roles and responsibilities, and anecdotes of developers' experiences in actually trying to implement what was in the manual.
These educational efforts work hand-in-hand with stepped-up enforcement activities. Stiffer penalties for noncompliance served as a prime motivator for developers to obtain the education they and their employees require in order to effectively prevent erosion. Thus, board personnel levied fines on developers for erosion prevention violations mounting up to $1 million in civil liabilities from mid-1997 through 1998. In addition, they issued cleanup and abatement orders. Penalties ranged from $7,000 to $235,000. A large portion of the enforcement fines is applied toward more educational workshops. One particular $30,000 fine footed the bill for the erosion prevention manual, helping to complete the education-enforcement cycle.
Contact: Hossain Kazemi, Section Leader, Watershed Compliance and Enforcement, Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Region, CA, 510-622-2300, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Site Plans to Protect Waterbodies
Kootenai County has nearly doubled its population in the past 20 years. The region's scenic beauty and natural resources(it is home to more than 20 lakes) make it an attractive place to live, and a popular recreation destination. The effect of this rapid growth on the county's water resources is a growing concern.
After identifying construction sites as a key step in protecting the region's water resources, the county adopted a site disturbance ordinance17 in 1997 to address grading, erosion control, and stormwater management. To implement the ordinance, the county designed a program to assess the potential a project has to affect water quality or adjacent properties, and to prevent adverse effects.
The program has two key components: a risk assessment and a site disturbance plan. Permits are required for all sites, except those that meet exemptions (minor projects regulated by other agencies such as mining and logging). As part of the permit process, the risk assessment rates the site as high, moderate, or low risk. Details about the site and the proposed activities determine the level of risk. A site inspection is often required to complete the risk assessment. The level of risk in turn determines the detail and complexity of the site disturbance plan.
Site disturbance plans outline specific actions to be taken at a site. Plans for high-risk sites, as well as all commercial and industrial site developments, installations of subdivision infrastructure, and large excavation projects involving more than 5,000 cubic yards of material or disturbing more than 2 acres of land, must be prepared by a design professional. For moderate-risk properties, a person knowledgeable about the site and erosion control is sufficient. Low-risk sites and sites located on extremely flat land overlying the Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer, which extends from the Idaho panhandle into eastern Washington, that are not within 500 feet of a lake or other surface waterbody are not required to prepare a site disturbance plan.
The ordinance includes additional site requirements that protect water resources, prevent erosion, and control stormwater runoff. The county established protection zones around streams and natural drainages, which vary from 10 to 150 feet wide depending on their class. Lots with frontage along designated lakes and rivers are considered "waterfront lots," and require maintenance of a 25-foot-wide natural buffer above the high-water mark. Erosion and sediment control BMPs are required for all sites, and must be installed as indicated in the plan prior to any site disturbance. Stormwater requirements include treatment for stormwater from all impervious surfaces prior to discharge; the ability to convey runoff from a 50-year storm without causing damage to other properties or infrastructure; no increase in the peak rate of runoff from the site for a 25-year storm; and no net increase in pollutant export at sites with existing site improvements, where stormwater treatment has not been previously required. The site owner or managing entity is responsible for maintaining site disturbance plans in perpetuity.
Kootenai County has legal authority to stop work at a site. If a violation continues, the party involved can be charged with a criminal misdemeanor and fined or sued. To enforce the ordinance, the county inspects a site at least twice during a project's lifetime. The ordinance also has a financial guarantee. Contractors/designers are bonded to one and a half times the costs of implementing the erosion prevention and stormwater management plan.
Kootenai County issued approximately 1,400 site disturbance permits and conducted about 800 site inspections (low-risk sites do not require inspections) in 1997. County personnel issued approximately 45 stop-work orders to sites found to be out of compliance with the ordinance. The county has observed similar trends so far in 1998.
Rand Wichman of the Kootenai County Planning Department feels that the program is helping to increase compliance. He remembers when it was not uncommon to find people working directly in streams, recalling one episode when a contractor completely lost a 30-foot culvert due to slope failure. Wichman cites a change in the program's administration as a major factor in improving the program's effectiveness. Since the spring of 1998, the program has been administered jointly by the planning and building departments. Wichman feels that while differences in mission, philosophy, and enthusiasm exist between the two departments, having more eyes in the field will continue to increase compliance.
Efforts to improve stormwater management and erosion prevention at constructions sites are not without challenges. Kootenai County faces a diverse set of land-use activities that fall under the ordinance, ranging from subdivision developments to recreational bulldozing on private lands. Therefore, inspectors and program administrators are not always able to find an adequate solution. Wichman also cites political sensitivity as a frequent barrier. Some developers and contractors still look for ways around the system, arguing that the ordinance is restricting desirable growth.
Despite these issues, the general public's support for the program is strong and growing. Much of the public support comes from a recognition of health and economic benefits associated with cleaner water. Since lakes are a major recreational attraction, keeping water quality high and ecological health good is very important. The Kootenai Environmental Alliance and other citizens are positive about the program, feeling that enforcement remains strong and that the program has been effective at preventing erosion and stormwater runoff problems. Currently, the county is making some minor amendments to the ordinance, but dramatic changes are not expected.
Contact: Rand Wichman, Senior Planner, Planning Department, ID, 208-666-8268.
California State Water Resources Control Board Demonstration of Erosion and Sediment Control Technology, Lake Tahoe Region, California18
The California State Water Resources Control Board conducted a three-year study in 1978 to determine methods of preventing and correcting erosion problems at construction sites. The Board compared two sites in the Lake Tahoe region: a well-planned development constructed in the 1970s and a poorly planned development constructed in the 1950s. Erosion control costs at the well-planned site were between $250 and $400 per residential lot, while the estimated cost to perform complete corrective erosion control at the poorly planned site ranged from $1,000 to $3,000 per residential lot. Furthermore, post-development erosion levels at the sites resulted in substantially different effects on benthic microinvertebrate communities. Researchers noted only minor impacts in a stream near the well-planned development, while they observed a 99 percent destruction in a stream near the poorly planned site.
Contact: California State Water Resources Control Board, 916-341-5254.
Detecting and Eliminating Improper or Illegal Connections and Discharges
Clean Bay Business Program
Palo Alto's Regional Water Quality Control Plant provides wastewater and stormwater services for the residents of Palo Alto, East Palo Alto, Los Altos Hills, Mountain View, and Stanford University. Believing that vehicle service facilities, which include commercial operations such as gas stations, repair and body shops, car washes, salvage yards, as well as fleet maintenance yards and other noncommercial operations, are an important contributor to pollutants in both wastewater and stormwater, the plant began implementing its Vehicle Service Facility Waste Minimization Program in 1992.
The sewer-use ordinance applicable to the plant's service area prescribes 15 best management practices (BMPs) to control flow into the Plant's wastewater and stormwater systems. Some of the required stormwater BMPs for vehicle maintenance facilities include eliminating discharges or disposal to storm drains, performing oil changes and other vehicle fluid removal over secondary containment, immediate cleanup of spills using non-water-using procedures (absorbents, dry sweeping, mopping), containment of leaking fluids, containment of wastewater from vehicle washing, annual employee training, and stenciling storm drains.
Starting in 1992, inspectors visit each vehicle service facility once a year. Facilities usually decline the plant's standard offer of a scheduled visit, so most are unannounced. Commercial facilities have a special incentive to participate: If a facility consents to a visit, and the visit reveals that the business uses all 15 of the BMPs, and otherwise does not pollute the water, then the plant recognizes the facility as a Clean Bay Business for the following year. Even if the facility is not in full compliance, inspectors provide advice and informational materials. Full compliance at the time of a subsequent follow-up visit also entitles a commercial facility to Clean Bay Business recognition.
Such designation entitles facilities to several promotional advantages: listing twice yearly in full-page newspaper advertisements placed in local papers by the plant, decals for display in shop windows or on counters, and camera-ready "tear strips" for display ads, business cards, and stationery. The Plant also promotes the general Clean Bay Business program -- and thus the individual Clean Bay Businesses -- in other ways. Each year, the plant distributes over 13,000 free coupons entitling the bearer to $2 off the cost of a car wash at any of the commercial car washes that are Clean Bay Businesses. The plant also holds an annual prize drawing, distributing approximately 47,000 entry forms for a contest awarding free or discounted auto services such as tune-ups, oil changes, or brake work at any Clean Bay Business.
Thus far, the combination of the ordinance requirements and site visits has resulted in dramatic behavioral changes at the vehicle service facilities. After the first round of visits in 1992, only 4 percent of the 318 facilities inspected complied with all 15 requirements. At the end of that year, 41 percent of the facilities were in full compliance. In 1998, inspectors found 94 percent of 289 facilities to be in compliance after the first or follow-up inspections. However, some facility types, especially wrecking/ salvage yards, remain a challenge in terms of improving operations to protect water quality.
As part of the increase in compliance, facilities eliminated 78 direct discharges to storm drains by ceasing or modifying vehicle washing activities, ending parking lot cleaning and outdoor wet sanding of vehicles, and other changes. Violations of requirements that protect storm drains fell by 90 percent from 1992 through 1995. The number of repair shops conducting vehicle fluid removal outdoors without secondary containment decreased from 43 to 4. The percentage of repair shops that had spills and leaks not cleaned up at the time of visits fell by 70 percent.
A Plant survey revealed that 60 percent of the facilities thought that the outreach activities -- the visits, consultation, and educational materials -- were the most valuable part of the program, while 30 percent thought public recognition as a Clean Bay Business was the best aspect. The per facility cost for the program was approximately $300 for the first year and $150 for subsequent years, which covers the visits and follow-up work, development of a mailing list and database, outreach materials, and other expenses.
This success has led the plant to deepen and expand the program. Beginning in 1994, auto parts stores could become Clean Bay Businesses if they distribute educational brochures to their customers, educate their own employees, keep their parking lots clean and free of spills without using water, and stenciling any storm drains in or near their lots. All auto parts stores in the plant are now Clean Bay Businesses. The plant also began vehicle repair class outreach in local high school and adult education repair classes, and developed generic BMPs for vehicle service facilities that could be used by other stormwater programs in the San Francisco Bay area.
Contact: Stephanie Hughes, Environmental Compliance Division, Regional Water Quality Control Plant, CA, 650-329-2421, email: email@example.com.
Stormwater Inspections, San Mateo, California20
The County Environmental Health Division performs stormwater inspections for 12 cities in the county at no charge, while conducting hazardous material and underground storage tank inspections.
Contact: Ken Robinson, Stormwater Specialist, San Mateo County Health Department, CA, 650-363-4708, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Non-Stormwater Discharge Program, Santa Monica, California21
The Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board conducted a study in 1995 of small non-stormwater discharges on receiving waters. Results of the study led to several small non-stormwater discharges being prohibited in the 1996 NPDES permit including, but not limited to, untreated washwater from gasoline, auto repair, and service facilities; mobile commercial cleaning operations; commercial/ municipal swimming pool filter backwash; and washing concrete trucks. Two city employees inspect over 3,000 facilities annually. Outreach programs address issues such as pet waste and pest control. Santa Monica estimated that during the 1994–95 rainy season, these efforts reduced contamination of more than 1.2 million gallons of total runoff.
Contact: Jack Topel, Santa Monica Bay Restoration Project, CA, 213-576-6615, email: email@example.com.
Implementing Pollution Prevention for Municipal Operations
Partnership Between Highway Agency and Golf Course
Murray City mayor and former recreation director Lynn Pett began planning for a municipal golf course in 1973. At about the same time, the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) was planning a new stretch of the I-215 beltway in southwestern Salt Lake County. Looking for dirt to add contours to the flat farmland and improve the golf course, the city struck a deal with UDOT for the golf course to receive 550,000 cubic yards of freeway dirt at no cost. In return, UDOT could use the golf course to control stormwater runoff from 4.5 miles of I-215. The project saved Murray City approximately $1 million in construction costs and UDOT $300,000 in land acquisition and stormwater piping costs.
The stormwater control system consists of a series of constructed settling ponds and wetlands integrated into the golf course. Highway runoff and subsurface waters are conveyed to a distilling basin, which removes most of the associated salt, sediment, oil, grease, dissolved metals, and trash. Water is then circulated through streams and wetlands to four additional ponds for further treatment. The city reports approximately 90 percent removal of oil, grease, and dissolved metals from runoff. The ponds and wetlands double as water hazards and enhance the beauty of the golf course while providing wildlife habitat. This distilling basin is dredged every two to three years. The golf course uses clean dredge spoils as fill; contaminated spoils are disposed of as required.
Water collected in the ponds is used to irrigate the 135-acre golf course, saving Murray City approximately $100,000 annually. In addition, the project provided 7 acres of flood retention and created nearly 11 acres of wetlands. The system has successfully handled runoff from several 25-year storms.
Mayor Pett has been very pleased with the outcome of the project, telling the Salt Lake Tribune that "the golf course has done more for the quality of life in the entire west side of our city than any one thing we could have done." The city has also observed an increase in property values around the golf course.
The stormwater control/golf course project is one piece of a larger effort to restore the Jordan River and create a recreational greenway system. Surrounded by the nation's seventh-highest percentage of urban population, the Jordan River has been abused for years. The golf course has been critical to progress on the Jordan Parkway. In addition to preventing pollutants from entering the river, the success of the golf course has helped fund other projects and land acquisition. The golf course is the busiest in the state and takes in over $1.7 million in revenues annually. These revenues enabled the city to issue bonds for the purchase of 150 acres along the Jordan River, and to leverage state and federal matching grants to preserve this system.
The Jordan Parkway project is making considerable strides towards improving the Jordan River as an urban recreational river system and community asset. The goal of the project is to re-establish the pre-development structural, functional, and visual characteristics of the river system. Projects such as the golf course are helping to improve water quality and allow a quality trout fishery to develop. Wildlife biologists note that since the 1970s, water quality has definitely improved. The parkway system consists of wildlife habitat area, riparian buffers, trails for walking and horseback riding, and wildflower gardens, as well as limited traditional park development. The system is also being used as an outdoor classroom and the city has plans to build a community education center.
Murray City's cost-effective stormwater management project has received considerable recognition for its success, including the 1991 U.S. EPA award for excellence in stormwater control. In an interview with the Salt Lake Tribune, EPA Region Eight Director James Scherer said: "It's very impressive to see recreation and pollution control combined. I'm also impressed with the combined effort that raised the funding."
Contact: Doug Hill, Public Services Director, Public Services Department, UT, 801-270-2400, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Reduced Pesticide Use at a Golf Course
The 18-hole Rosewood Lakes municipal golf course in Reno, Nevada, covers approximately 220 acres, of which 100 are irrigated grounds and 63 acres are wetlands. Because the site is in a flood plain and contains so many wetlands, the Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (DEP) regulated its development and required the developers to retain most of the existing wetlands. To ensure the required amount of wetlands remained after construction, developers created approximately 7 acres of new wetlands. While the loss of wetlands probably eliminated some natural stormwater functions, wetland mitigation meets permit requirements. In addition, several of the management practices implemented at Rosewood Lakes help prevent polluted stormwater runoff.
Pesticide use is restricted to greens, so the grounds staff uses no herbicides to control weed growth on fairways or roughs. The staff uses integrated pest management practices such as verticutting and thatching to promote healthy turf, a key to holding back weed growth. The staff is also attentive to proper watering as another means to avoid cultivating diseases rather than grass. Course superintendent Tom Janning says that pesticide use remains low in part because the course is in an area of the country where there are not a lot of pest or disease problems. Staff only apply slow-release fertilizer, which, by avoiding peaks and valleys in nutrient loading, puts less stress on the grass, helping it remain strong enough to resist pest and disease infestation. To further insure that pollutants do not enter the wetlands, 20-foot no-fertilizer buffer zones surround them. There is also a sedimentation pond on site, which principally catches sediment from agricultural areas upstream.
Another condition that ACOE and DEP placed on the development of the course is that the city monitor water quality. Three creeks enter the site, combine, and then leave the site. The course must monitor the water quality at the three entry points as well as the exit points, and has been doing so since 1988, prior to construction of the course, to provide baseline data. Monitoring results have been good. Whether due to the minimization of pesticide use, or the provision of buffer zones, the water-quality samples have never tested positive for pesticide runoff or chemicals in the eight years that the course has been open. In addition, monitoring has not revealed any seasonal fluctuations in nutrient concentrations downstream of the golf course, despite seasonal differences in application.
In addition to the water-quality benefits of the course design, golfers enjoy the design as well. Many have made very positive comments, and they particularly like the fact that the holes wind between the wetlands, rather than between trees, as on other courses. Golfers cannot retrieve balls from the wetlands, since entry is forbidden.
So far as costs are concerned, Janning believes that if the course were not under the restrictions, they probably would spend more on pesticides. In any event, the Rosewood Lakes golf course shows that municipalities can provide a playing experience that golfers enjoy while at the same time taking action to keep nearby waterbodies clean.
Contact: Tom Janning, Superintendent, Rosewood Lakes Golf Course, NV, 775-857-2892.
Old Works Golf Course, Anaconda, Montana24
Built on a superfund site, this Jack Nicklaus-designed golf course takes many measures to capture and treat runoff from slag piles, and to prevent infiltration into the capped contaminated soils below. The measures also prevent stormwater runoff pollution from the golf course itself. BMPs used include using drought-tolerant grasses, implementing an integrated pest management and fertilizer minimization program, harvesting water for irrigation, and utilizing an equipment wash water recycling facility. The golf course design and stormwater management has received strong support from all parties involved.
Contact: Rick Hathaway, Superintendent, Old Works Golf Course, MT, 406-563-5827, email: email@example.com.
Catchbasin Cleaning and Street Sweeping, Santa Monica, California25
The city cleans its 824 catchbasins on a quarterly or monthly basis, or as needed, and sweeps all city streets at least once per week.
Contact: Neal Shapiro, Environmental Programs Division, CA, 310-458-8223, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Santa Clara Valley, California26
Santa Clara Valley's municipal stormwater permit identifies transportation activities as potentially the most significant source of stormwater pollution, in particular brake pad dust as a major source of copper in runoff. In response, all the municipalities together clean approximately 19,000 miles of streets per month, which helps prevent 2,500 pounds of copper and 46,000 cubic yards of material from entering storm sewers.
Contact: Jill Bicknell, Assistant Program Manager, Supervising Engineer, CA, 408-720-8811.
1. Center for Livable Communities, Village Homes, Davis, California, 1994; Corbett, M., A Better Place to Live: New Designs for Tomorrow's Communities, Rodale Press: Emmaus, Penn., 1981; Ferguson, B. K., Stormwater Infiltration (Boca Raton: Lewis, 1994), pp. 237–239; written communication with K. Lichten, San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, October 21, 1997; Thayer, R. L. Jr., "Designing an Experimental Solar Community," Landscape Architecture, May 1977, 67(3):223–228; Wilson, A., "Stormwater Management: Environmentally Sound Approaches," Environmental Building News, Sept./Oct. 1994, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 8–9.
2. Woodward-Clyde Consultants, DUST Marsh Special Study FY93-94, Alameda County Urban Runoff Clean Water Program, January 1995; Woodward-Clyde Consultants, DUST Marsh Special Study FY92–93, Alameda County Urban Runoff Clean Water Program, April 1994; Woodward-Clyde Consultants, DUST Marsh Long Term Evaluation, Alameda County Clean Water Program, October, 1998; Wetzig, R. M., Case Study of a Wetland Storm Water Treatment System on San Francisco Bay, California, Master's Thesis, California State University, Hayward, California, June, 1995; Katznelson, R. Environmental Scientist, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, personal communication, March 8, 1999.
3. Ferguson, B. K., Stormwater Infiltration (Boca Raton: Lewis, 1994), pp. 236–237; Marks, M., Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District, personal communication, May 22, 1997.
4. Center for Livable Communities, Model Projects: The Crossings, Mountain View, CA, 1995; Calthorpe Associates, The Crossings: Transit-Oriented Neighborhood, 1996; Santa Clara Valley Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Program, Source Identification and Control Report, Dec. 1992, pp. 2–3; telephone communication with Michael Rider, TPG Development Corporation, January 6, 1998.
5. Thomas, P., Project Landscape Architect, Wenk Associates, Inc., personal communication, October 22, 1998; Belnap, J., Researcher, Canyonlands National Park, U. S. National Park Service, personal communication, November 9, 1998; Budelier, S., Vegetation Management Coordinator, Canyonlands National Park, U. S. National Park Service, personal communication, November 9, 1998.
6. Pinkham, R., "Buried Urban Streams See the Light," Nonpoint Source News Notes, Terrene Institute, No. 53, September/October 1998, pp. 19–23.
7. Assing, J. V., Survey of Public Attitudes and Awareness Conducted February 1994, Alameda County Urban Runoff Clean Water Program, April 1994; Assing, J. V., Survey of Public Awareness of Advertising Campaign, Alameda County Urban Runoff Clean Water Program, October 1994; Brosseau, G., Bay Area Stormwater Management Agencies Association, personal communication, December 17, 1997.
8. Meyers, D. E., J. Parke, J. Hays, and M. Sidenstecker, 1997. Urban Watch Monitoring Program, Coastal Watershed Council, Santa Cruz, California; Meyers, D. E., Executive Director, Coastal Watershed Council, personal communication, August 26 and September 25, 1998; Sidenstecker, M., Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, personal communication, September 2, 1998.
9. The Urban Watch kit is manufactured by the LaMotte Company, Fort Worth, Texas.
10. Maguire, T., Idaho Division of Environmental Quality, personal communication, August 18, 1998; Idaho Division of Environmental Quality. Planning, Practices, and Policy: An Idaho Storm Water Program Toolbox, July 1998.
11. Marks, M., Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District, personal communication, January 1997.
12. O'Brien, E., Senior Project Manager, Sustainable Conservation, personal communication, January 28, 1999.
13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Guidance Specifying Management Measured for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters, 840-B-92-002, January 1993, pp. 4–127.
14. "Los Angeles County Canines Hound Owners to Clean Up NPS," Nonpoint Source News Notes, Terrene Institute, No. 53, September/October 1998, p. 26.
15. Kazemi, H., San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, personal communication, October 10, 1997; State of California, Regional Water Quality Control Board, Staff Summary Report, Item: 12; Subject: Construction-Related Erosion Problems: Status Report; State of California, Regional Water Quality Control Board, Staff Summary Report, Item: 14; Subject: Construction-Related Erosion Problems: Status Report, July 17, 1996; San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, Effective Management of Construction Site Erosion in the San Franscisco Bay Area-Problems and Solutions, fact sheet, undated.
16. Hollister, B., Kootenai Environmental Alliance, personal communications, August 20, 1998; Kootenai County, Idaho Board of Commissioners, Site Disturbance Ordinance No. 251, January 1, 1997; Kootenai County Planning Department, A Guide to the Site Disturbance Ordiance; Wichman, Rand, Senior Planner, Kootenai County Planning Department, personal communications, August 25, 1998.
17. Kootenai County Ordinance No. 251.
18. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Demonstration of Erosion and Sediment Control Technology Lake Tahoe Region of California," October 21, 1997; http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/repository/abstrac1/abstra32.htm.
19. Brosseau, G., 1995 Summary Report: Vehicle Service Facility Waste Minimization Program, Palo Alto: Regional Water Quality Control Plant, undated; Alameda Countywide Clean Water Program, California Industrial/Commercial Stormwater Inspection Program Handbook, pp. 3–35.
20. Alameda County-wide Clean Water Program, California Industrial/Commercial Stormwater Inspection Program Handbook.
21. Materials received from Santa Monica Bay Restoration Project.
22. Hill, D., "Murray City Project," Jordan River Watershed Council Quarterly, Spring 1998, pp. 4–5; Hill, D., T. Thompson, and S. H. Smith, "Environmentally Sound Parks: An Old Vision Revisited," The Journal of Recreation and Leisure, Spring 1995, pp. 97–103; Knott, D., "Environmental Solutions: Two municipalities construct golf courses to solve their water-use dilemmas," Golf Course Management, February 1995, pp. 210–211; Landscape Architect and Specifier News, January 1998, p. 80; Schelble, Ray., "The Jordan River: Things are looking up at `the bottom,'" Utah Fishing & Outdoors, June 1–15, 1992, pp. 10–15; Tucker, D., "Murray Golf's Water Hazards Key Efficient Runoff System," The Salt Lake Tribune, June 6, 1991; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, President Clinton's Clean Water initiative: Analysis of Benefits and Costs, Office of Water, Washington, D.C., March 1994, pp. 19–20; Wharton, T., "Murray Mayor's Dream Adds to Jordan River Parkway," The Salt Lake Tribune., October 11, 1990, Section D, p. 7; Wharton, T., "Jordan is Making a Comeback As Productive Urban Fishery," The Salt Lake Tribune., May 1991.
23. "The 1997 Environmental Steward Awards: Regional Winners," Golf Course Management, February 1997, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 80, 84; telephone interview with Tom Janning, Rosewood Lakes Golf Course, February 10, 1998.
24. Hathaway, R., Superintendent, Old Works Golf Course, personal communication, August 14, 1998.
25. Sustainable City Home Page, City of Santa Monica, Stormwater and Wastewater, April 24, 1998; http://pen.ci.santa-monica.ca.us/e...ment/policy/bay/programs.htm#Storm.
26. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, President Clinton's Clean Water Initiative: Analysis of Benefits and Costs, 800-R-94-002, Office of Water, Washington D.C., March 1994, pp. 20.
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