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Know the Forest and the Trees
A Consumer's Guide to Buying Wood

Four Questions to Ask Before Buying
If your local retailers don't know this basic information about their wood products, ask them to find out.

1. Where is the wood from?
For both consumers and companies, knowing the source of wood products is the first step in making good purchasing choices. At a minimum, retailers should know what country the wood came from -- not just where it was processed. Ideally, they will also know the region within the country and what timber company harvested it.

2. What species is the wood?
(e.g. Teak, Ipê, "Philippine" or "Honduran" Mahogany) Slow-growing hardwood tree species are often more endangered than fast-growing softwood species (see table). A tree's origin also matters. For example, plantation teak from Central America or Indonesia is lower risk than teak from the forests of Myanmar.

3. Is the wood certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)?
FSC certification is your best assurance that the wood you are buying is from a legal and sustainably managed forest. You can also ask about the specific type of FSC certification given to the wood, e.g., 100 percent, recycled, or mixed-sources.

4. If the wood is not FSC certified, how can I know it was legally or sustainably logged?
Some certification labels on the international market are not rigorous or independently evaluated. Retailers may also have their own internal systems to ensure that they are selling legal products. Let suppliers know through your questions that you care about how these systems work.

Whether you are building a deck or buying a nightstand, the source of the wood you buy matters. In the best case, your purchase could support a sustainable community rainforest initiative. But in the other extreme, the wood in your new deck could contribute to continued impoverishment of families in Latin America or deforestation in Southeast Asia.

As a consumer, you can hold retailers accountable by inquiring about the origin of the wood they sell. And by purchasing legally and sustainably harvested wood -- or by choosing recycled or composite alternatives -- you help steer the market away from destructive and illegal logging and towards sustainable business practices.

Buying sustainable wood can be tricky, because the same species may have been harvested legally and sustainably from one place, and illegally and unsustainably in another. For that reason, this guide focuses on how you can educate yourself and make informed decisions before spending your money.

In addition to the four key questions to ask wood and furniture retailers (see right), here are a few additional guidelines for smarter wood buying:

Give Wood a Second Life
You don't have to cut down a tree to build your deck. Buying reclaimed or salvaged woods prevents unnecessary logging in tropical forests and its associated greenhouse gas emissions, and it also provides incentives for municipal recycling programs. If you can't find used wood, give recycled plastic lumber or composites a try.

Look for the FSC Logo
If you do decide to build with non-reclaimed wood, look for the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) logo. It will tell you if the wood came from a well-managed forest. While no verification system is perfect, FSC-certified wood tends to come from lower-impact logging methods. The FSC also promotes systems to track wood from the forest to the consumer, helping to distinguish products that were legally harvested from those that were not.

Tropical Hardwoods: Proceed with Caution
Tropical hardwoods are difficult to manage sustainably because they typically grow at low densities in natural forests and regenerate poorly after logging. The forests where these valuable species grow -- mostly in South America, Southeast Asia and Africa -- have been subject to damaging illegal logging activities. Think twice before purchasing products made with wood from the following endangered trees. Ask the four questions above to try and ascertain if the wood was harvested legally and sustainably.


AKA: Honduran or American mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla

ORIGIN: Mexico, Central & South American tropical forests
QUALITIES: Rich orange to reddishbrown colors, fine grains, dimensionally stable, highly workable, durable

USES: High-quality furniture, interior finishing, artisanry, boat building, veneer

STATUS: Like all timbers shown here, overexploited wherever it occurs & facing extensive habitat loss; on CITES Appendix II since 2002*; associated with forced labor and human rights violations in Latin America

NOTE: Most current old-growth supply is from Peru, where illegal & unsustainable logging continues; Fijian plantation supplies are also available

AKA: Central American cedar, cedro, Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis

ORIGIN: Mexico, Central & South American tropical forests
QUALITIES: Pink to salmon-red, less dense than big-leaf mahogany, stable, strong, durable, aromatic

USES: Furniture, cabinetry, cigar boxes, musical instruments, construction

STATUS: Considered threatened by logging & habitat loss throughout its range; unsuccessfully proposed for CITES Appendix II in 2007*; often associated with destructive mahogany extraction

NOTE: All species in Cedrela look very similar and are considered threatened

AKA: Honduran pine, Nicaraguan pitch pine, ocote, Pinus oocarpa, P. caribea

ORIGIN: Central American highland forests, esp. Honduras
QUALITIES: A light, long-fibered wood easily sawn & worked

USES: Lightweight construction, broom handles,crates, telephone poles & posts, paper

STATUS: Remaining natural stands are threatened by overexploitation & illegal logging in protected areas; in Honduras, conflict over illegal pine logging has led to ongoing human rights violations

NOTE: Wood difficult to distinguish from other commercial species in genus (e.g., Southern Yellow Pine)

AKA: Roble, pau d'arco, ironwood, Tabebuia rosea, T. impetiginosa, T. serratifolia

ORIGIN: Central & South American tropical forests
QUALITIES: Dark green or brown wood is extremely dense, durable & weather resistant

USES: Residential decking, heavy construction, railroad ties, fence posts

STATUS: Heavily exploited in the Amazon to supply decking market as substitute for dwindling big-leaf mahogany supplies

NOTE: Ipê's life history -- slow-growing, with scarce regeneration -- makes it extremely vulnerable to logging

AKA: Cocobolo, palisandro, Dalbergia spp.

ORIGIN: American, African & Asian dry tropical forests
QUALITIES: Highly patterned dark red heartwood, dense, strong & durable

USES: Artisanal carving, inlay work, musical instruments, tool & cutlery handles

STATUS: Considered threatened by logging wherever it occurs; unsuccessfully proposed for CITES Appendix II in 2007*

NOTE: Dalbergia is a large group of similar species occurring at extremely low densities in natural forests

AKA: Teca, Tectona grandis

ORIGIN: Southeast Asia esp. India, Myanmar & Thailand
QUALITIES: Dense golden-brown wood, dimensionally stable, highly workable, durable, insect & weather resistant

USES: High-quality furniture, interior finishing, decking, ship building, veneer

STATUS: Centuries of commercial logging & land clearing have sharply reduced habitat; most natural forest teak traded internationally is from Myanmar, where its trade has helped to fund the military junta

NOTE: Extensive plantations in Indonesia and Central & South America provide FSC-certified supply

AKA: Gonystylus bancanus, Gonystylus spp.

ORIGIN: Southeast Asian peat swamps & lowland forests, esp. Indonesia & Malaysia
QUALITIES: Pale blonde color, fine-grained, highly workable, tensile strength excellent for long narrow pieces, aromatic

USES: Baby cribs, picture frames, tool handles, pool cues, joinery, moldings, flooring

STATUS: Heavily logged in vulnerable peat swamps & protected areas, especially prime endangered orangutan habitat; on CITES Appendix II since 2002*

NOTE: Six of 30 Gonystylus species are widely traded & considered threatened, esp. G. bancanus

AKA: Kwila, Ipil, Intsia bijuga, I. palembanica

ORIGIN: Southeast Asian & Pacific Islands coastal & mangrove forests
QUALITIES: Red-brown wood, gold-flecked grain, extremely durable & decayresistant

USES: Flooring, joinery, posts, beams, furniture, musical instruments

STATUS: Few natural stands survive, currently under review for CITES protection; in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, the object of largescale illegal logging and exploitation of communities

NOTE: Reports suggest that large volumes will be used in construction of 2008 Olympic facilities in Beijing

AKA: Sapele, sipo, utile, Entandrophragma spp., Khaya spp.

ORIGIN: African tropical forests from Guinea to Angola
QUALITIES: Pink to reddish-brown, fine grains, durable, similar working qualities to big-leaf mahogany

USES: High-quality furniture, interior finishing, boat building, artisanry, veneer

STATUS: Heavily logged throughout their natural ranges, species in this group face widespread commercial depletion

NOTE: In the same botanical family (Meliaceae) as big-leaf mahogany, Spanish cedar & high-value Southeast Asian mahoganies

AKA: Gabon, Aucoumea klaineana

ORIGIN: African equatorial forests esp. Gabon & Guinea
QUALITIES: Lightweight reddish wood easily impregnated, seasoned & worked

USES: Furniture, interior finishing, cabinetry, cigar boxes, veneer, plywood

STATUS: Limited range & heavy exploitation, esp. in Gabon, mean that supplies are considered under threat

NOTE: Extensive plantations have been established outside okoumé's range in Cameroon, Ghana, Madagascar, and Guyana

* The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) was established to protect plant and animal species from overharvesting for trade. Species included in Appendix II are considered endangered, and their legal trade is supposed to be restricted to scientifically determined sustainable quotas in their native countries.

Support Sustainability
Now that you know the difference between good and bad wood, show others the way. Take a look at the procurement policies of your office, school, house of worship or community organization. Let others -- including policymakers -- know how sustainably procured wood benefits the world's forests and the people who live and work around them.

Policymakers at all levels of government have an important role to play in protecting tropical forests, starting with their own wood purchasing. Some cities already have purchasing policies that give preference to FSC-certified wood or recycled alternatives. Talk to your local leaders and convince your city to become one of the next with a sustainable wood-purchasing policy.

You can also show support for sustainable logging at the national level. Congress is considering legislation to prohibit the import of illegally harvested wood and has begun to require controls on the illegal timber trade as part of U.S. bilateral trade agreements. The next step is for the United States to lead efforts to establish an international agreement prohibiting the cross-border trade of illegally logged wood.

Related NRDC Pages:
Know the Forest and the Trees [PDF]
Good Wood: How Forest Certification Helps the Environment

Helpful links:
Wood certification: The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Alternatives to tropical woods, including building specifications and sources: The California Integrated Waste Management Board
Rainforest Relief
Destructive illegal logging and what's being done to combat it: The Environmental Investigation Agency

last revised 04.22.08

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