The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration site has a popular mythbuster about the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. I recommend you read it, since NOAA reserves these sorts of posts for issues of great public importance, like climate change and mermaids. There has always been one thing missing, however, from the agency’s explanation: Just how much plastic junk do we toss into the sea?
Thanks to a study published today in the journal Science, we finally have an estimate. Are you sitting down? Humans release between 5.3 million and 14 million tons of plastic into the ocean annually. Here’s some perspective on that hard-to-fathom number. Nine million tons of plastic is the equivalent of 136 billion plastic milk jugs. Stack them up and they’d reach more than halfway to Mars. (OK, OK—only when its orbit is at its closest to earth, nerd.) Nine million tons is also the equivalent of piling five grocery bags full of plastic on every foot of coastline in the world.
“That’s the number that shocked me,” says Jenna Jambeck, the University of Georgia engineering professor who led the study. “I made my students double-check their calculations.”
Even so, the authors say this may be an underestimate. They limited their calculations to plastic coming from communities located within 31 miles of a coastline in 2010, because there wasn’t reliable data for plastic waste entering the oceans from inland waterways. This is probably a significant omission. Europe's Danube River alone releases approximately 1,700 tons of plastic into the sea every year.
A 2013 study estimated the total amount of plastic floating in the sea at just 269,000 tons. If that’s true, where does nine million tons of new plastic go each year? The oceans might be efficient at chemically breaking down discarded plastic, but not at that scale. Or the studies may simply be incompatible, but more research will be needed to explain the divergence.
Whichever figure you choose, however, there is too much plastic in our oceans. The researchers behind today’s study compiled their data by country, letting us know where to look to remedy the problem—and Asia, we need to have a talk. That continent alone is responsible for more than 63 percent of the plastic released into the oceans annually. Of the ten worst national litterbugs, only two (Egypt and Nigeria) are outside Asia. China is by far the worst polluter, producing more than a quarter of the world’s oceangoing plastic.
The United States is the 20th-biggest culprit (unless you count the European Union as a single entity). That may seem respectable, since we’re the world’s largest economy and have the third-largest population. We are, however, the only fully developed economy in the top 20. Of the seven countries with more coastline than the United States, only two (Indonesia and the Philippines) release more plastic into the ocean.
“Plastic pollution has huge economic costs for taxpayers and local governments,” says Darby Hoover, a senior resource specialist at NRDC. “Recyclable post-consumer packaging with an estimated value of $11.4 billion is landfilled in the U.S. annually instead of being recycled.”
In a speech last year, President Obama discussed how “we are the first generation to feel the impact of climate change and the last generation that can do something about it.” That’s also more or less true of plastic in the oceans. There was no mention of the problem in the scientific literature until the early 1970s. Today, tiny pieces of plastic are choking or obstructing the gastrointestinal tracts of seabirds, sea turtles, and many marine mammals.
How can we improve? It will require a combination of lowering plastic production and improving waste management. Either option, by itself, couldn’t get us below a few million tons of ocean plastic each year.
So stop eating so much takeout, and, for the sake of sea turtles, recycle what you must use. Because unless we make some major changes, the amount going into the ocean is likely to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025, according to today’s study. In other words, we will throw as much as 140 million tons of plastic into the ocean. (Or we could use it to build five ladders to Mars. Just a suggestion.)
onEarth provides reporting and analysis about environmental science, policy, and culture. All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the policies or positions of NRDC. Learn more or follow us on Facebook and Twitter.