The cobalt mining industry brings more roads, more deforestation, and more workers looking for relatively easy sources of protein into the DRC’s otherwise remote forests. A study from 2017 estimated that 8 to 10 million people make a living each year at these surface mines—and that translates to a lot of primates on the plate.
While corruption and lack of government accountability are rife in the DRC, even here there is hope. A recent census of the mountain gorillas Dian Fossey studied shows that the gorilla’s numbers have actually increased since 2010, making it the only great ape population on earth proven to be on the upswing.
Madagascar’s on Its Own
The African island of Madagascar has the luxury of sharing precisely zero land borders with another country. This is good news in some ways, as it means the island’s wildlife is protected from violent conflicts and from poachers spilling over from neighboring countries (as happens on the DRC-Rwanda border and the Brazil-Colombia border). But islands come with their own biodiversity risks.
The landmass now known as Madagascar separated from the Seychelles and India between 84 and 95 million years ago, and it boasts an array of species found nowhere else on earth. This includes five families of primates made up of 15 different genera and 111 species and subspecies.
“Madagascar is far and away the highest major primate conservation priority in the world,” says Mittermeier.
But he notes that 90 percent of its natural habitats have already disappeared, thanks to agriculture and logging over the past century. “You have all of this incredible primate diversity found nowhere else in an area about the size of three New Jerseys,” he says. “And New Jersey is not a very big state.”
The Malagasy government has done very little to enforce its own environmental laws. Fortunately, local communities and NGOs are taking matters into their own hands. For instance, the only way tourists can gain access to the Andasibe-Mantadia National Park—home of the indri, one of the world’s largest living lemurs—is by hiring a local guide.
NGOs are also taking the reins to save the critically endangered golden-crowned sifaka. About 6,000 of these cream-colored beauties remain in the northern stretches of the island, where forest fragmentation has greatly reduced their habitat. A local Malagasy NGO known as Fanamby teamed up with Conservation International in 2005 to secure a 49,000-acre protected area for the sifaka. Their numbers continue to decline, but so long as there are protected forests, there is hope.
Indonesia Is a Mixed Bag
Last comes Indonesia, a nation of more than 17,000 islands in the Pacific. Known for its orangutans—some of which have lost more than half of their habitat over the past 16 years to palm oil plantations—Indonesia is also home to googly-eyed tarsiers, lanky gibbons, and lovely little langurs.