India has the second-fastest growing economy in the world. This rapid development could exacerbate the already severe pollution problems the nation faces. There is a growing recognition that India’s existing structures to enforce environmental laws are inadequate to tackle the scale of the pollution problems. As a result, Indian civil society and the Indian environment ministry have put forward proposals to strengthen environmental governance in India, including government proposals to create a new agency focused on compliance and enforcement. To support these important efforts, NRDC’s new report, Effective Environmental Compliance and Governance, draws on our extensive experience in compliance and enforcement of environmental laws in the United States and elsewhere. The report considers the successes and failures of efforts in the United States and sets out key best practices for ensuring environmental compliance.