NRDC/Ecotope Heat Pump Water Heater Performance Data

NRDC partnered with Ecotope to model and analyze the performance of three different types of electric water heaters: conventional electric water heaters; “hybrid” heat pump water heaters, which use heat pump mode most of the time but also have a back-up resistive heating element; and “pure” heat pump water heaters that do not use a resistive heating element at all. We simulated the operation of these water heaters in climate conditions representative of all 50 U.S. states, and using different installation locations within the home, two tank sizes, and various hot water usage rates. The study also took a more detailed look at California in light of the state’s ambitious climate change mitigation goals, and its wide range of climate conditions. Results and analysis are available in two separate spreadsheets: one for state-level results, and one for California’s 16 climate zones.

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